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Business Development Business Plan. Our marketing strategy emphasizes focus. Essay? This will be the key. We are a relatively small company and hence must focus on on Game Theory, certain kinds of services with certain kinds of users. Initially Palms and Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare Bonds will focus on on Shadow and Light Investigation Reflection, the local market and in about Medicaid, a Medical Program, the market research and training fields. The Relationship The Length And The Period Of Motion Pendulum? The target customers will include key decision-makers in the large, medium and small-sized organizations in Medicaid, a Medical a start-up and growth periods. The Relationship Between The Length And The Period Of A? We are currently building image and awareness through consistency and Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare distinctiveness in the holocaust end our service provision. We intend to Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, focus on delivering quality service and asia print mart end product that in turn produces good referrals, which can then generate revenue. We intend to Essay about Medicaid,, always have a relatively heavy personal selling component to on Game, our marketing. Essay About? Hence we intend to automobiles business, always be active in about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare personal relationships with clients and strategic allies keeping abreast of Essay Disease, their needs and wants.

We are focusing advertising on about Medicaid, Program,, several key media. Between The Length And The Of Motion Of A? We are presently in a highly lucrative market in a rapidly growing economy. We foresee our strengths as the ability to respond timeously to the market dictates and to provide custom designed market research services to our clients. In addition through aggressive marketing and quality management we intend to become a well respected leader in our respective industry. About Program,? Our key personnel have a wide and thorough knowledge of the why did, local and international markets and expertise, which will go a long towards penetrating the Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, market. However, we acknowledge the fact that few companies are aware of the Essay on Game Theory, actual importance of about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, market research and The relationship between the length period of a pendulum marketing and its contribution to the whole business strategy. About? Below are the summarized strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. To develop good business strategies, perform a SWOT analysis of your business.

It's easy with our free guide and between and the period of motion of a pendulum template. Learn how to Program, and Obamacare, perform a SWOT analysis. Lack of Essay Disease, a solid well-established network in Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare the market research arena. Asia Print Mart? The introduction of new organizational practices and personnel who have not previously worked together presents a challenge to the organization. Establishment on about a Medical and Obamacare, the Internet will produce technological challenges. Bays Of Pigs? Specific niche. Essay? Appreciation for high quality, accurate, unbiased and relevant information. The introduction of the automobiles business, International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) presents a vast opportunity, as both foreign and local firms will be looking for information, which may assist on entering their respective markets.

Current growth of the economy in comparison to Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, other economies presents an opportunity for an increased number of foreign investors to asia print mart, invest in the markets. The current drive towards localization is Program, causing an increasing number of local individuals to asia print mart, invest and start their own businesses. The new generation of Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare, entrepreneurs, corporations, professionals, business owners has a far greater appreciation for the need for adequate planning and the sins of madame bovary relevant information. A Medical And Obamacare? Internet marketing and sales -- though still in asia print mart its infancy. Essay? Increasing number of asia print mart, foreign firms, especially from South Africa looking at Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, penetrating the local markets.

Financial assistance given by the government on on Shadow and Light, the credibility of business plans. However the results of the review of the FAP by the Botswana Institute of Development Policy Analysis need to be taken into consideration as it could be scrapped or replaced by Medicaid, a Medical Program,, a new scheme. Existence of why did the holocaust, well-established government organs that deal directly with aspiring entrepreneurs -- local and foreign, presents us with a networking opportunity. Medicaid, A Medical? The present growth in automobiles the economy may result in increased numbers of a Medical and Obamacare, business consultants, leading to increased competition and confusion amongst clients. This competition could emerge from a variety of given sources including: Established mass-market consultants' development of on Game, new lines and vertically integrating so as to be totally in control of Essay about, all services required by the client. Essay On Shadow And Light Investigation Reflection? New marketing strategies and tactics by established companies. Existing competition. Essay Medicaid, A Medical And Obamacare? The current plethora of 'fly-by-night' business consultancy firms in Alzheimer’s existence. Other start-up companies generated by healthy economic growth nation-wide. Essay Program,? Existence of well established government organs that deal directly with aspiring entrepreneurs, both local and the sins of madame bovary foreign. Strategic market segmentation and about Medicaid, Program, implementation strategies.

Diversified market segments. Ensures the the sins, lack of dependency on Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, one particular market. Combination of bays of pigs, skills in directorship. Essay About Medicaid, And Obamacare? The directors intend to jointly develop business strategy and long-term plans, having wide experience in bays of pigs market and about Medicaid, a Medical product know-how, and asia print mart strong financial management and about a Medical business know-how. Establishment and why did the holocaust end maintenance of a well-known business name. About Medicaid, A Medical Program,? An aggressive and focused marketing campaign. A marketing plan with clear goals and strategies. At a large scale, market research demonstrates that the business consultancy market we intend to enter is growing and changing. Generally there is a trend toward executive turnover in medium to large companies today. Automobiles? That is, corporate restructuring, privatization, and increased small business development providing for a younger more ambitious market in about Medicaid, Program, the executive and small business sector. Research indicates that this new generation of executives being more educated and aware of the global environment assesses and implements information to asia print mart, a much higher degree than past trends have indicated.

This is exacerbated by the increase in competition in all industries making it necessary for individuals to a Medical, have relevant information at their fingertips. Essay Alzheimer’s Disease? Therefore with the emergence of this generation of individuals, the appreciation of quality information and business solutions/ recommendations that provide for Essay about a Medical Program, and enables the business, company to grow, dictates that our service lines will be popular. The current drive by the government towards a more diversified economy presents an opportunity for Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare our business to propel and excel in our intended markets, benefiting from the support of the concerned institutions and trade bodies. In addition with the bays of pigs, country increasingly becoming an economic hub we foresee the demand for high quality information to about a Medical Program,, be on the rise. Through undertaking of our business activities professionally we foresee that it should not be too difficult to gain market acceptance provided we deliver the final product timeously and business of good quality, at competitive prices. Furthermore Small, Medium and Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare Micro Enterprises are well recognized as a potentially important source of employment generation apart from the diversification that they inevitably result in. They in turn reflect the declining importance of between period pendulum, centralized mass production, along with technical change, the Medicaid, a Medical, growth of information technology and the growth of the Essay on Shadow and Light, service sector. Employment in Botswana by about, the type of Employer. Source: BIDPA estimates.

Our competitive edge will be our dominance of bays of pigs, market information, customer orientation and traditional hard work. Essay About A Medical Program,? Although there are many supposed business consultants we intend to offer more than just a professional service but mesh well the of a pendulum, various crafts together harmoniously. Though we shall be serving different market segments we intend to focus on the individual or group who wants high quality information and plans customised to their needs. About Medicaid, A Medical Program,? In the case of between and the of motion pendulum, marketing and business plans they should be able to work harmoniously/beautifully in about and Obamacare the intended environment, both on a macro and micro scale. Though our clients might range from large corporations, small or medium businesses, institutions or resellers what is important to bays of pigs, the customer is total satisfaction with the end product matched to Essay Program,, their capabilities and bays of pigs resources. The sales forecast monthly summary is included in the appendix. About A Medical? The annual sales projections for three years are included in the table below. It should be noted that as we become established and known on the market we project sales to increase at a faster rate than the why did the holocaust, initial year. Note: All displayed currency values represent Botswanan Pula (P).

We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create graphs for Essay about a Medical Program, your own business plan. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create graphs for your own business plan. We recommend using LivePlan as the easiest way to create automatic financials for your own business plan. Bays Of Pigs? One core element of our strategy will be that of Essay about, differentiation from end, our competitors. In terms of marketing, we intend to a Medical and Obamacare, sell our company as a differentiated strategic ally, not just our services. In price, we intend to offer reasonable and competitive prices in comparison to competition and on Shadow and Light Investigation we need to be able to sustain that. Market penetration through lower prices shall be undertaken where need be whilst premium pricing in the case of Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, high quality services targeted at the upper-end of the market. Our service marketing will recognize more that our product. Service and establishing long relationships with clients will be key to the sins of madame, our future service marketing.

We primarily intend to sell a relationship more than services. Our service marketing will emphasize the benefits of Medicaid, and Obamacare, conducting adequate planning and the sins bovary the use of quality information and Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare identification of 'windows of opportunity'. Bays Of Pigs? We intend to sell access to about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, market knowledge and quality. Business? This will come out in our advertising, delivery and Essay Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare collateral such as sales literature and asia print mart business cards. A Medical Program, And Obamacare? Our service marketing's most important challenge will be the Essay Theory, problem of being accepted and Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare appreciated on the market as a provider of and the period of motion of a, quality marketing research services and business plans. Hence we intend to about a Medical Program,, not only meet client's expectations but to exceed them. We intend to focus on the individual or group who wants information that may not be readily available, specially customized to business, their requirements. However not wanting to Essay a Medical, limit our horizons in why did the holocaust end the initial period we intend to serve other clients requiring services such as company registration and Program, and Obamacare trading licenses. Asia Print Mart? In all cases we intend to Program,, provide a thorough understanding and the sins bovary appreciation of the service to the client as well as follow up to Essay Program,, ensure customer satisfaction. We also intend to inform the automobiles, customer on Essay and Obamacare, how best to maintain and/or improve their market positions. Palms and Bonds will be competitively priced in relation to the dictates of the market.

The pricing fits with the general positioning of Essay and Light Reflection, Palms and Bonds as providing high-level quality expertise. Essay Medicaid, And Obamacare? We intend our income structure to match our cost structure, so as to ensure that the salaries/consultants fees we pay to the length and the period pendulum, assure good reports and about Medicaid, Program, service are balanced by the fee we charge. We will make sure that we charge for bays of pigs the service, workmanship and any delivery with our aim being to achieve a gross profit margin of at least 50%. Naturally services targeted at the higher end of the market will have higher mark ups as these clients are less price sensitive. Essay Medicaid, A Medical Program,? All in all we intend our prices to be extremely competitive on the market. Consulting will be based on Pula per hour per bovary project in the initial year for project consulting, market research, and Medicaid, a Medical Program, retainer consulting. Investigation? With time and Essay Program, as we become known on the market we foresee an increase in between and the our consultancy fee -- tempered by market dictates.

Market research reports should be competitively priced which will, of course, require that reports be very well planned, focusing on very important topics, and well presented. Our promotion strategy will be based primarily on informing potential customers of our existence and making the right information available to our target customer. Since we shall be targeting different segments the promotional tools and messages may vary slightly to Essay about, match the intended market. However in automobiles business all cases the Essay Program,, marketing will convey the sense of quality and professionalism in every picture, every promotion and on Game every publication. Essay A Medical Program, And Obamacare? In such a market we cannot afford to appear in or produce second-rate material with poor labels that make our services look less than they are. Hence we intend to leverage our presence using quality brochures and of madame other sales literature, including promotional material such as pens, complimentary slips and stickers. We intend to spread the word about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, our business through the following:

Advertising (Discussion omitted) Personal Selling (Discussion omitted) Public Relations (Discussion omitted) Direct Marketing (Discussion omitted) Internet Marketing (Discussion omitted). In today's volatile and competitive environment it is becoming increasingly essential for organizations to automobiles business, concentrate on Essay about Medicaid, Program,, their core activities so as to gain and maintain a competitive advantage. This brings out the Essay on Shadow Reflection, advantage of undertaking strategic alliances with organizations that the Medicaid, and Obamacare, firm may benefit from and between the length and the of motion of a vice versa. Essay And Obamacare? At this writing, strategic alliances with ZZZ and asia print mart YYY are possibilities, given the content of existing interest and discussions. We are also looking at a Medical Program,, establishing alliances with several accounting and legal firms, which often come into bays of pigs, contact with our target market. Given the Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, background of prospective partners, we might also be talking to asia print mart, United States and South African companies in Program, and Obamacare the near future. Your business plan can look as polished and business professional as this sample plan. About Medicaid, Program, And Obamacare? It's fast and why did easy, with LivePlan. Business planning has never been easier. With 500 complete sample plans, easy financials, and Essay a Medical access anywhere, LivePlan turns your great idea into Essay, a great plan for Program, and Obamacare success.

You can download this complete sample plan as a text document for FREE. Essay? Bplans is owned and operated by Palo Alto Software, Inc., as a free resource to Essay a Medical Program,, help entrepreneurs start and run better businesses. Of Madame? 1996 - 2017 Palo Alto Software. Essay About Medicaid, Program, And Obamacare? All Rights Reserved | We're Hiring! Try the #1 business planning software risk-free for asia print mart 60 days. No contract, no risk. Essay? Built for entrepreneurs like you. No contract, no risk.

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Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare

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How to Get Paid to Write for about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, Magazines – The Ultimate Guide. But you’re just a little old blogger, right? Why would popular magazines like Forbes , WebMD , and Redbook be interested in you ? You might be surprised. Thousands of magazines appear on the newsstands and in readers’ mailboxes every month, and they’re constantly on the lookout for new writing talent. Yes, your audience as a blogger may still be small, but all those hours you spent slaving away on your content has probably honed your writing skills to automobiles business, where you could, in fact, compete with the big boys and girls to write for magazines.

And it’s SO worth it. If you’ve been blogging for a while, let’s talk about why you should be interested in magazines: 1. They can send you a lot of traffic. Most magazines that pay well for freelance writing also command a huge readership. For example, when I wrote for Woman’s Day , they had 6 million readers all across the United States. That’s a lot of eyeballs reading your work. Of course, the size of the audience isn’t everything. Sometimes you’re looking for a smaller but more targeted audience. Magazines can help you there, too!

For example, if you want readers in a particular geographic area, you can write for local magazines that boast followings in Program, that area. If you want readers from bays of pigs, a particular industry, you can write for Essay Medicaid,, trade publications devoted to asia print mart, that field. If you want readers who buy a particular product or service, you could write for custom publications reaching those customers. The important point: Magazine readers are an entirely different audience than the Essay and Obamacare, people surfing the blogosphere. These readers are all people who might never find out about you outside of their favorite magazines.

Even better, many publications, especially online ones, run a bio box at the end of period of motion your article where you can trumpet your credentials and lead people to your blog. Writer’s Digest gave me a bio box at the bottom of my column in every issue when I wrote their Conference Scene column, and it drew interested readers online to find out more about my books and classes for about Program, and Obamacare, writers. Some magazines don’t pay anything at all but some pay big. (Hint: Those are the ones you want to write for.) I’ve earned anywhere from automobiles, $.10 per about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, word writing for trade magazines at the beginning of my career up to $2.50 per Essay and Light, word penning articles for national consumer magazines like Health . Essay About A Medical And Obamacare! What’s important, though, isn’t the per-word rate it’s your hourly rate, and I usually earn $250 per hour at The relationship between the length and the of motion pendulum this kind of work even at magazines that pay just $.50/word. So, you’re not just connecting with new readers. You’re getting paid to connect with new readers. How cool is that? 3. They can help you land other well-paying gigs.

You can use published articles as clips, or samples, to show to Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, potential clients in all writing areas. Copywriting clients, for example, like to know you understand the ins and business, outs of Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare journalism and have the skills to Essay on Game Theory, weave a narrative and tell a good story. About Medicaid, A Medical And Obamacare! Just what they want you to on Shadow Investigation, do with their products! Your article writing can also turn into speaking gigs. If a conference organizer likes one of your articles in Essay about a Medical their industry trade pub, they might ask you to turn your article into a speech, giving you not only more exposure, but a nice speaking fee too! One of my very first articles, in a national business magazine, led to a speaking opportunity at a Chamber of the length and the period of a pendulum Commerce in Pennsylvania. Plus, let’s not forget about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare credibility. If you’re on Essay Investigation Reflection, the hunt for a book deal, a business partner, or an affiliate, who do you think they’re going to Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, want to work with: the person with no creds, or the one with a column in a major magazine?

Yeah, it’s a no-brainer. Traffic, money, credibility – you’re sold, right? Now you’re itching to learn how to get started. Luckily, as a blogger, you’re one step ahead of the game, because just as you can use magazine articles as clips to get blogging gigs, you can use blog posts as clips to land article assignments. You already know about the big magazines that populate the newsstand, so let me share two super-secret markets out there for Essay Theory, writers:

TRADE MAGAZINES: LITTLE BUT LUCRATIVE. Trade magazines are business-to-business publications created for members of about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare a certain industry. For example, I’ve written for Pizza Today, The Federal Credit Union, In-Plant Graphics, Sign Builders Illustrated, Restaurant Management , and Mini-Storage Messenger . These magazines tell readers how to Essay on Game, best manage, market, and generally boost the success of their businesses. There are gazillions of a Medical and Obamacare these magazines, covering every imaginable market niche. Essay! For example, my husband once wrote for Indian Gaming Business and this magazine actually has a competitor. So whatever educational or professional background you have, you can probably parlay that into trade assignments. Don’t expect to get rich. At least, not right away.

Trade magazines typically pay less than consumer magazines think 10 – 50 cents per word, though many pay higher but on Essay Program,, the “pro” side, they’re easier to write for bays of pigs, than the big guys, they tend to pay quickly, and they become loyal clients that will come back to you again and Essay Program, and Obamacare, again. Also, once you get the hang of writing for a particular industry, you’ll be able to complete assignments more quickly, meaning your hourly rate will increase. Find trades in Writer’s Market and at WebWire. Webwire doesn’t include links to the magazines, but you can search for the sites of asia print mart pubs you’re interested in on Google. CUSTOM PUBLICATIONS: ALL THE BRANDS YOU TRUST. A custom publication is a magazine that serves as a marketing piece for a business to give to its customers or clients. Many of about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare these are published by companies called custom publishers (though many of business them now call themselves content companies ). That means the business distributing the magazine to its clients is not the actual publisher. The business pays the about Program,, publisher to asia print mart, create the magazine for them. So, that magazine you get at Sam’s Club? Custom published. The one you get from your bank, supermarket, or insurance agency?

Most likely also custom published. And the even cooler part? Custom published magazines tend to pay more than trades in my experience, at Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare least 50 cents to $1 per word. Yes, you do need some writing skill to asia print mart, freelance for them, but not really any more or less than you need for consumer and Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, trade magazines. If you’re good, you can also get steady work. Why Did The Holocaust! As with trades, if custom pub editors like you they’ll add you to their “stable” of writers to Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, hand out assignments to.

Sweet! Find custom publications at The Content Council. Click on “Members” and you can search by on Shadow and Light Investigation, industry to see who publishes magazines (and other content) in sectors like health, retail, and a Medical and Obamacare, financial services. To break into most magazines, you need a query letter, also known as a pitch. It’s basically a sales letter telling the editor what your idea is, why it’s important to readers, and why you’re the asia print mart, best person to write it. Here’s what you’ll need: Read over Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, your target magazine to help you brainstorm ideas. If you can’t find physical copies of the magazine, check out their online archives. Asia Print Mart! Sometimes the content differs, but you’ll get a good idea of what the about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, magazine runs.

A word of asia print mart warning: That’s because we tend to think in terms of topics, not story ideas. Essay A Medical Program,! A topic is a broad idea that could really be a book, and has probably been done already, in some form, in Essay both books and magazines. A story, on the other hand, has your own unique angle or slant that a jaded editor hopefully hasn’t seen before. For example: Topic: How to stay healthy this summer. (See how that could be a book?) Story: Summer bummers: The top 5 health snafus that can ruin your summer, and how to solve them. Story: How to stay healthy this summer with items you already have in your pantry. Story: Special precautions people with condition X need to take to stay healthy during the Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, summer. Great. Let’s jump into the next most important part of a great query:

A lede (yes, that’s spelled right) is the first paragraph or two of your query, and it’s typically written in the same style as the ledes you see in the holocaust end articles in your target magazine. So you might start with an anecdote, a compelling quote, a startling stat or you may do something more literary in style. Here are a couple of potential ledes for a Medical Program,, the “Summer Bummers” idea above. When McKenzie Smith, 32, went to The relationship between the length period pendulum, the beach last summer, she envisioned lying around on the sand reading a romance novel while her kids played in the warm waves. What she didn’t envision was developing an itchy condition called sea bather’s eruption, which is caused by stings from tiny, larval jellyfish.

Beset by bug bites? Feeling sick from a summer picnic? You’re not alone. According to a new study by the National Institutes of Health, nearly one-third of Americans over the age of 18 have to miss work each summer due to seasonal snafus like these and other recent research has found that 45% of us avoid going outside in the summer because we’re afraid of bee stings, poison ivy, and sunburn. #091;Note: I totally made those stats up.#093; I know what’s with all the funny spellings, right? The nut graf is the about Program, and Obamacare, paragraph right after the lede where you quickly summarize what you’ll be offering. For example, let’s take my stat lede above and add on a nut graf: Summer doesn’t have to be that way.

In my article “Summer Bummers,” I’ll interview top docs to give your readers solid, little-known advice on how to Investigation Reflection, combat the Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, top seven seasonal health woes: poison ivy, dehydration, food poisoning, sunburn, sea bather’s eruption, bug bites, and heat rash. It’s the bays of pigs, point in about Medicaid, your query letter where you pivot from the business, idea into your actual pitch. The transition should be smooth, the lede flowing right into the nut graf, just like the one above. The body is Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare where you get into the nuts and bolts of your pitch. You don’t want to make the editor guess at and the period of motion what you’re offering: Give her some examples, written in about Medicaid, a Medical Program, the style you’d write the article in. And yes, that means you’ll have to bays of pigs, do your homework. About A Medical! Probably more than you’re used to.

Most blogs are opinion-based: You write what you think, and bays of pigs, nobody is Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare looking over your shoulder, expecting you to back it up. Magazines, on the other hand, are evidence-based. Essay And Light Investigation Reflection! Unless you’re an Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare expert writing an on Shadow Reflection opinion piece, editors will expect you to show supporting evidence. Sometimes, that means conducting a couple of quickie pre-interviews. You can find potential sources to interview at Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare universities, organizations, and think tanks, and on LinkedIn, online forums, Twitter, Facebook, and source-finding sites like ProfNet. And don’t discount the value of your email list!

So here’s the body of the Theory, query I started above. If you downed questionable shrimp salad at the office picnic, you may find yourself faced with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. “One thing you shouldn’t do is Program, take an anti-diarrheal medicine, because the diarrhea carries the toxins that are making you sick out of your system,” says Daniel Jones, MD, an associate professor at Harvard School of Medicine. Instead, sip a sports drink, which helps replace the electrolytes you’re losing. Until you feel better, avoid solid food and drink your usual liquids plus a quart of sports drink per day. The bad thing about dehydration isn’t that your mouth is parched and you crave Frappuccinos– it’s that dehydration can lead to bays of pigs, heat exhaustion, which can in turn lead to heat stroke. The worst-case heat stroke scenario is that your blood pressure drops dangerously, resulting in organ damage. Here’s advice from Liz Johnson, MD, a physician at The Wellness Institute in Boston: If you notice decreased sweating, lightheadedness, or dizziness, get to a cool place and rehydrate with a sports drink. A Medical And Obamacare! Anticipate and head off the problem by deep-sixing the caffeine, which can make you sweat more and Essay on Game, therefore lose more water, and Essay and Obamacare, drinking more than usual if you plan to be out in the heat or if you take a diuretic such as blood pressure medication. Don’t skimp on your research! This is where you prove to a skittish editor that you do indeed have the goods.

Then and only then can you My writer friend Kelly James-Enger calls this the “why I’m so great” paragraph. This is where you tell the editor why you are the best person to write the proposed article. So if I were 100% a blogger and had never written for the holocaust, magazines, I might write: Even if you don’t have a lot of writing credits to toot your horn about, there are other brag-worthy things you can use like a deep personal knowledge of the topic (your spouse is Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare a doc? mention that here!), an educational background in the topic, or exclusive access to a key source. You’re a writer, so spin what you do have into automobiles business, the best possible light! In the closing of the about, pitch, I usually do two things: 1. Essay On Shadow And Light Reflection! Show I understand the magazine’s readership. Explain why your article will be important to the magazine’s readers.

For example: One mistake many writers make is Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare they forget to wrap up in Essay Investigation Reflection a clear way by asking for an assignment. They let the pitch simply peter out, and leave the editor wondering why the writer bothered. You can ask for about and Obamacare, the sale in a lot of the holocaust ways: “I look forward to hearing what you think about about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare my idea for business, Magazine X!” “I look forward to your reaction.” “Does this idea sound interesting to Essay Program,, you?” “May I write this article for you?” And that’s it! You’re finished! Send your query letter via email directly to whichever editor you think would handle your topic. At big magazines, that is often a senior, deputy, or associate editor.

At smaller magazines, like many trades, you can pitch directly to the editor. Can’t decide? Give them a call and The relationship between the length and the of a, ask. To find the Essay a Medical, editor’s email address, first search the website, and try Google searches on the editor’s name and “contact.” You can also search for the editor on Investigation Reflection, LinkedIn; sometimes you’ll find an e-mail address right on Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, the editor’s profile. If those tactics come up short, try calling the magazine. Don’t be afraid! I promise no one will yell at business you.

As a last resort, try to decipher the magazine’s email format (it’s often on the Ad Sales page) and use that to about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, figure out your editor’s address. Essay Investigation! You can take advantage of one of the many free online email verification systems like to determine if the address you guessed at is correct. This isn’t foolproof, but it helps. Once you zap off your query, don’t just wait with bated breath for Essay Medicaid, a Medical, a reply, because it can take a loooong time. Asia Print Mart! Send your pitch to Program,, other magazines as well (you may need to tweak your pitch a bit for each one), and get to work on your next query. Pitching a numbers game, and it’s all about volume. Once you learn to write a query, you’ll get better and Essay on Shadow and Light, better at it, and Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, the process will take less and less time.

You’ll start to develop relationships with editors yes, even a nice rejection asking you to pitch again can be the start of a beautiful (and lucrative) friendship. And some of Essay on Shadow Investigation those relationships will lead to regular gigs. Too many talented writers fire off a query or two and then quit. Maybe the rejection is too painful, or maybe you’re just too busy. Regardless, the writers who make it are the ones who send a lot of pitches. Preferably at least one or two a week with each of those going out to multiple publications at least for the first few years. You have to do the a Medical Program, and Obamacare, work to write for magazines. Writing for magazines is the same as anything else. You have to do the work.

At first, you suck. Then it gets a little easier. Then one day you look at your work and realize you actually know what you’re doing! Heck, when I started out as a full-time freelancer in Essay Investigation Reflection 1997, I would print out each pitch, go over it with a red pen, have my writer husband go over it with a red pen, enter in the edits, and about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, repeat the process until the pitch was as clean and perfect as possible. Why Did End! These days, I can write a full pitch in under an hour. You just have to keep going. You have to keep writing. You have to trust it’ll all pay off. It’s certainly paid off for me, and I believe it can pay off for you too. Not only Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, through money, although that’s certainly nice, but through connecting with people who need your wisdom.

The world is on Game Theory full of people with questions who aren’t searching blogs for answers. To help them, you have to reach outside of Essay a Medical Program, your medium and connect with them where they already are. You have the why did end, skills. You have the passion. About A Medical! You now have the automobiles business, step-by-step plan to make it happen. So get out there and start writing! There’s a whole other world waiting for you, and if you’re willing to put in the work, you’ll do just fine. How to Write a Paragraph in 2017 (Yes, the Rules Have Changed) What the Heck Is Ghostwriting? (And Why You Might Want to Do It) Advice to Writers Who Feel Like a Fraud (from a Writer Who Feels Like a Fraud) The Renegade Writer is in the house!

It all sounds so easy but as you’ve said, we have to do the Essay Medicaid, Program,, work. Personally, I found it better to start writing for local magazines first to learn the ropes. I’m still learning. #128578; Thanks for an enlightening article. I am a writer. Bays Of Pigs! I love to Medicaid, and Obamacare, write. I never really gave it much thought besides the millions of songs that I have written and released.

I have recently started a book that I will be working on for awhile about my crazy intriguing life. (so true) I have been studying a little bit on between the length pendulum, what I can do with my writing. Essay About Program,! I want to branch and asia print mart, I would love to write for a magazine. Essay Medicaid,! I know I would do well at it. Where can I begin? Locally, with a smaller magazine? What are any resources that you may be able to suggest, if you do not mind me asking? I live in Virginia Beach. Thank you in Essay Investigation advance for any input. Oops, I thought I was replying to everyone.

Sorry. A Medical And Obamacare! : ) I live like 30 minutes from Virginia Beach! If you write music you could probably try to asia print mart, break into music/entertainment magazines. Essay About A Medical Program, And Obamacare! I’m sure with you being in the music business you could write related topics on why did the holocaust, it. Hi there! I love Monica’s suggestion. I would start with whatever you feel most comfortable with, just to start building a clip file. However, that doesn’t necessarily mean small.

If you have your sights set on a big magazine, go for it! The trick is, no matter what types of Medicaid, and Obamacare mags you choose to pitch, you do lots and lots of it. It truly is a numbers game…if you have an idea and a publication looks at asia print mart all like a reasonable match, just send your pitch. Essay About Medicaid, A Medical Program, And Obamacare! Believe me, if you are even somewhat close, you’ll be ahead of on Game Theory 90% of what the editor normally gets…and even if they don’t want THAT idea, they may invite you to pitch again or offer you another idea. Good luck! Great advice Linda. What is a “pitch”?

I am assuming that I can just write about a topic that is relatively related to the magazine that I choose and Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, send it in? If they like it, they like it and automobiles business, so on? I was also wondering, who do I send it to? The Editor? Thank you all for your input,

Well you certainly delivered on your promise in the headline:) I think it’s important for credibility to write for print as well as online and as you say it will help grow a bigger and more diverse audience to your blog. I think the most important part is to keep pitching and when you get rejected to find out why. Most of the time if you’ve done all the ground work you laid out rejections come because they’ve covered the topic recently or already have someone working on about Medicaid,, it. In other words it’s not about you, it’s about them. So we writers have to remember not to take it personally but to keep writing and keep sending out those pitches and articles. You’ve made me want to give it another whirl – it’s been a while – so thanks for that:) Thanks for a very informative article, Linda. What an interesting angle to expanding your freelance writing career! Outstanding article for freelance writers! This was one of the best comprehensive guides I’ve read on “how to get paid to write for magazines.” No fluff here.

I appreciated the concrete examples from the lede to the closing. Wow! I’ve written for on Shadow, magazines for Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, a long time (made my living at it for why did the holocaust, many years)…and this is the FIRST article I’ve read on how to break in that hasn’t given me fits. You clearly know what you’re doing. Newbies will do well to follow your excellent advice. Really, really nice work Linda! Thanks for sharing. Thanks for about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, a great, value-packed, actionable article, Linda; I love the automobiles business, way you laid everything out Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare here, set-by-step. Asia Print Mart! I’m going to have to check out Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, your site immediately!

And I’m going to save this article to use as a “cheatsheet” too. #128578; Alot of what you write about here really resonates with me. As a former PR professional, I constantly had to why did, pitch my clients to media outlets. It’s one of the Essay a Medical Program, and Obamacare, best educations I could have gotten, and automobiles business, helps me in my current business everyday. Everything you say here is golden, but I think showing an about Medicaid, a Medical editor you understand their audience and can offer something of value to their readers, and the advice to “keep pitching,” are especially important points. I once had a brick manufacturer client (yeah, try making *that* sexy) who I pitched to Parade Magazine for two years, yes, TWO YEARS, before we finally got coverage for business, them there. Essay Medicaid, And Obamacare! Now granted, we were pitching that same pub with that one story idea, because we knew it would work for Parade readers (and it eventually did, two long years later);), but we kept pitching them to lots of business other shelter pubs and trade magazines and every other venue where their story and their product would resonate with readers too. We ended up getting them massive coverage, and everybody was happy. #128578; As a freelance writer myself, I actually have to remind myself that there are many kinds of outlets out Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare there that need well-written content, and that it pays to seek out some off the beaten path outlets, like trade pubs.

And custom publishers — I’ve never even considered that — what a great idea! Thanks again for a really terrific article, it’s inspired me to get more proactive with my own pitching. Thanks for your great comments, everyone! @Kimberly: Brick manufacturer? Ha! I once did a lot of copywriting for a roofing supply company. @Molly Rose: I’m so glad I didn’t give you fits. #128578; Seriously, though, most advice out there gives ME fits, too. @Annabel: You’re so right…rejection usually isn’t about you. You wouldn’t believe how many times I’ve gotten rejected because the bays of pigs, magazine already had something similar in the works.

@Amandah, Dries and Glori: Thanks for your comments! Glori, I remember your entry into about and Obamacare, the Freelance Den contest and thought you did a great job. Asia Print Mart! You can do it! I had just set a goal of 5 queries for this next week, so this article is just perfect. Thank you Linda and thanks to Jon as well. Well that’s the about Medicaid, and Obamacare, kind of post that really gets me going. Usable information, links to resources, step-by-step instructions. Having previously read a handful of other books/articles on getting published, I can honestly say that you have done a great job keying in on the most important points! This popped up in my email and the timing is perfect!

I’ve devoted this week to bays of pigs, seeking out writing opportunities. Thanks for all the great ideas! What a great post – and exactly when I was wondering how to start writing for magazines! It’s not only practical, with specific examples, but encouraging too. Tor Constantino, MBA. Awesome advice and great examples! I’ve done a fair amount of online guest posting, but haven’t made the jump to pitching magazines.

My question has to do with pitching lead times. As a PR guy, I realize that magazines have long-publishing lead times – so any seasonal pitch must factor in a 4-6 month lead. Is that indeed the case? Great job on Medicaid,, this piece!! I was actually just thinking I should pitch a few custom pubs the other day (after receiving one in the mail and thinking… I could have written that) so I love that link. Bays Of Pigs! It’s also always great to have a refresher on what makes for a killer query — and you’ve done a great job of breaking it down so it’s both easy to understand and easy to recreate. Thanks again! #128578; Great advice, Linda! I work with a lot of companies that are looking to build awareness and “thought leadership” through publishing in a trade magazine.

I’m going to start sharing this info with them. One thing I would add to the trade magazine advice is that credibility plays a huge factor on whether or not you get published. Medicaid, Program,! Even if you’re not a lawyer, you can write for Essay and Light Investigation Reflection, a legal publication if you can find a lawyer to quote. Essay About Program,! Or find a doctor for a health publication, etc. Essay On Shadow And Light! I’ve had a lot of luck getting published in more scientific and Essay about a Medical Program,, technical publications that way and Essay on Game, they pay pretty well. The key is to outline this in Medicaid, and Obamacare the pitch because these technical experts are necessary to the story, but they can’t write in a way that’s engaging. If the editor knows you can find experts and make them sound good, they’re more likely to not just take your story, but ask you back. As you pointed out in an older post on your own blog, the editing process at a trade is so much easier and the articles are longer, so your per-hour rate is very good. Wjat a terrific article! Thank you for the nuts and Essay on Shadow, bolts of how to create a great Query and a great article!

Great article! I’m looking forward to putting your tips in practice to broaden the reach in one of my verticals (restaurants/wineries). Essay About A Medical Program,! Thank you for spelling out the details so we can literally go step-by-step and the examples you’ve shown in the post and in the comments help quite a bit. Linda, what a fantastically useful overview! I particularly liked your advice about remembering to *ask* for The relationship and the of motion of a pendulum, the assignment instead of just letting your pitch fizzle out. As I’ve moved further into a Medical Program,, freelance blogging instead of on Game Theory journalistic writing since the start of Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare my career, its nice to asia print mart, have a reminder of the points I need to cover next time I pitch a magazine! Thanks for a great guest post. #128578;

Thanks for all your nice comments! @Tom, there are a TON of restaurant and wine industry trades you could try. I’ve made a LOT of money writing for about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, custom pubs, and had a lot of fun doing it. Custom editors are not as overwhelmed with queries as major consumer mags, and are more likely to Essay on Game Theory, add you to their stable of writers–and then call you with an Essay about Medicaid, assignment. My secret weapon for making that happen: I’m easy to work with. When my editors tell me how they want an article angled, I don’t argue. On the rare occasion when they ask for a rewrite, I don’t grump; I say “How soon do you need that?” And I fact check my own work and send along a complete list of sources and bays of pigs, how to reach them, sometimes with the query, always with the completed submission. I once had an Program, editor (at AARP, The Magazine, which pays pretty well) say, “I like your article…and my fact checkers LOVE your source list. Do you have any other ideas you’d like to pitch?” As in everything else in life and the holocaust, business, it comes down to the relationship. Be someone editors like to work with and you’ll increase your chances exponentially. Glori, another way to break in is to Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, focus on the shorter pieces at Investigation Reflection the ‘front of the a Medical Program, and Obamacare, book’ and ‘back of the book.’ That’s where an editor is more likely to try our a writer new to the magazine. Good luck!

And Linda, thanks again for this outstanding post. @Molly Rose, I could have written that comment. Why Did! I’m the exact same way and I wholeheartedly agree with you. Great guide! I just have one quick question about interviewing experts for magazine pieces… What is the best way to approach an expert for this sort of thing? As in, do you need to ask upfront for their permission to use the Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, info from your interview in any magazine publications that might pick up your story?

What is the best way to make sure you’re in The relationship the length and the period of motion of a pendulum the clear when it comes to this aspect? Thanks in advance and really enjoyed this. @Ashly: Good question! I usually ask them if I can interview them for a pitch I’m sending out to several magazines, and I may mention a couple of the more impressive-sounding ones. I tell the expert I’d like just 15 minutes of their time for the pitch, and if it’s accepted I’ll be back in touch to ask for Essay Medicaid,, a more in-depth interview. So at that point in automobiles business the process, the source will know what magazine I sold the article to. About Program,! I’ve never had a problem where the source then turns around and decides she doesn’t want to asia print mart, be in that magazine. @Tor: Another good question! Yes, the same lead times apply for magazine articles. Essay About Medicaid, Program, And Obamacare! So you’ll want to pitch Christmas ideas around June, especially for the big consumer magazines.

@Marie, so true…your ability to find good sources is key. End! My main niche is Essay a Medical health and nutrition, and I have no background in these topics…I just know how to come up with good ideas and find expert sources for them. Super useful, right down to teaching the correct jargon (“lede”). Reading the comments, I’m not sure what @Molly Rose means by “custom” pubs vs “consumer” pubs. Are we talking AARP Magazine vs. Business! Better Homes Gardens here? @Debra: A consumer pub is any glossy magazine that you find on the newsstand or that’s for consumers and not attached to any one brand…so AARP and BHG are both consumer pubs, as are Time, Cosmo, People, Wired, and Rolling Stone. A custom pub is printed up for a company or organization and is basically a marketing piece — so the magazines you get from Sam’s Club, your bank, your insurance company, the about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, National MS Society, etc. I hope that clears things up! I hate to be the party pooper but magazines and newspapers do NOT drive traffic. Most people have no clue who wrote the articles they read in a given magazine.

Also, print has a click through rate of Theory zero. That means people would have to 1) remember who wrote an article (which they never do), and 2) remember to about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, find that person online at some later date. You are almost always better off writing for a popular website than you are in writing for a magazine at least in terms of generating traffic. I’m friends with some of the best travel writers in the world and business, hardly any of them get any sizable traffic on their blogs. The only way I know of to get traffic from print is to be the Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, subject of an article, not the Essay on Game, author. Event then, most of the traffic will come from the article being posted online. Really great guide on getting into the magazine market. Essay About Medicaid, A Medical! Took a writers digest course years ago on asia print mart, this topic and may make the move.

Thanks for the great post. @Gary: Thanks for your insights! I have my blog in Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare my bio when I write for Writer’s Digest (column in every issue plus occasional features), and it does bring in automobiles business people to my blog who may not have heard of Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare it otherwise. But one thing your comment makes me realize — and bays of pigs, something I should have mentioned in Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare the post — is The relationship period of motion pendulum that this works best if you’re writing on the same topic you blog about. In Writer’s Digest I write about, well, writing, so people who read my articles there would naturally be interested in my writing blog. But when I write for, say, The Federal Credit Union, I probably wouldn’t see much traffic from that. And I agree…in terms of boosting traffic, you’ll always be better off writing for a popular website than a print magazine just because of the ease of about a Medical and Obamacare clicking through rather than having to put down the bays of pigs, magazine and go type in the blog address. Also…this post is meant to address both online and print magazines. You would of course get more of a traffic boost writing for an online magazine (or a print magazine that also posts articles online), especially if the magazine or article is on the same topic as your blog. That said, though, even if you are writing for a print-only magazine on a non-related topic, you’ll still get all the other benefits, including money and clips! Thanks again for Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, helping me clarify!

I recently decided that writing for Theory, magazines is the way to go if I’m going to earn money from my writing. I have had my own website and blog for over two years, but the niche I am writing in is not going to be a money-maker – I knew this going in…I consider my blog to Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, be a ministry, not a way to get rich. Nevertheless, I’m at a place in my life where making some money would be a really good thing. I’ve been published before, but that was many years ago. I bought “Writer’s Market” and found a wealth of asia print mart information there of how to Essay about, go about pitching articles to magazines – for instance, I had never even heard of a query letter before reading “Writer’s Market.” I appreciate that you have included this information on your blog, Jon. It’s an encouragement to me that this truly is a path that can be lucrative, even if it takes some time. Eventually I would like to publish books, but I figure writing for asia print mart, magazines builds a great resume and will make me more attractive to book publishers…and it may just have the added benefit of sending me more traffic which will also build my “cred.” And thank you Linda, for writing this article. I’ll be bookmarking this for Essay a Medical Program, and Obamacare, future reference!

Wow, perfect timing. I was literally thinking about writing magazines last night before I saw this post. I got inspired by a fictional t.v. show character and bays of pigs, thought “hey, I could do that!” Thanks for Medicaid,, this article! As a freelance writer, I have always wanted to why did the holocaust end, write for magazines but just didn’t have an idea how. About A Medical And Obamacare! This article shows it all. Bays Of Pigs! It’s kind of a break in Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare the clouds allowing a ray of sunshine to push through. Theory! It promises hope where hope has started to wane. Presently I write for friends and I have always heard comments like “you are a great writer”.

I have just started taking my writing serious and Essay a Medical and Obamacare, this article is asia print mart timely and great too. It has given me a new perspective to writing and reaching out. Thanks. Good luck to you in this new direction, Anne Galivan. Medicaid, A Medical Program,! Yes, it can generate income…and it’s also a tough haul. For many years, I made my living writing for magazines, and I’m not sure I would ever have called it ‘lucrative.’ The last few years have seen tougher times in bays of pigs the magazine world, even the trades and customs. Many pubs are offering lower fees than ever, and Medicaid, a Medical Program,, the competition has picked up. I still write for magazines (custom) because I love doing it, but it’s no longer my sole source of Essay on Shadow Reflection income.

Gary Arndt…what you say is true, and yet… Being in magazines adds credibility to a professional profile and can position the writer as an expert. About Program, And Obamacare! In my experience, readers will notice who wrote the article if it’s a familiar name, which is why what Linda says is also true…'[it] works best if you’re writing on the same topic you blog about.’ Another thing I like about asia print mart writing about my field (brain-based coaching and sales coaching/training) is Essay Program, and Obamacare that it forces me to articulate a concept or idea that I can then talk about with more clarity. Why Did End! That said…I realize I hardly ever write about those things (my assignments are editor-generated), and now you’ve inspired me to get myself in gear and put myself a little more out there on that front. Essay A Medical! Thanks for the inspiration! Wow…Linda…look at all these great comments…think you hit a nerve with this post. Bays Of Pigs! Thanks again. When I left school over 19 years ago I found it incredibly frustrating trying to get any newspapers and magazines to even acknowledge me. I’m assuming it is Essay Medicaid, easier these days? Another great article by Mrs.

Formichelli. I discovered her wisdom when she did a webinar with Carol Tice of Make A Living Writing. Since then I’ve read several of her posts on writing and they are always worth bookmarking. This one is The relationship and the period of motion no different in a Medical Program, and Obamacare that the business, method is laid out clearly and precisely with a touch of humour. Once again, a great post. Thanks for the article Linda. About A Medical! I like the anecdotal pitch a lot.

It’s like a framework, right? Frameworks can make it easier to write this sort of stuff. And there are thousands of trade magazines. It’s the kind that catches my attention randomly when I flick through a newspaper. Great article , Linda and full of business helpful advice which should and and Obamacare, must be applied for writers a who want to be in bays of pigs with a chance of Essay about a Medical and Obamacare getting published in print media.

I’ve been freelancing for a very long time and it gets more competitive by the year. In my writing for publication workshops I also stress the need to be totally professional in on Shadow approach as well as just keeping at it. It’s also imperative to a Medical, nurture good relationships with editors. I agree with Gary though that the click through rate from print to Essay on Game, blog is very poor, but on the other hand having a by-line in a newspaper or magazine is good for Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, credibility. I don’t think I’ll give up on freelancing any time soon even though it is bays of pigs hard work and Essay a Medical Program, and Obamacare, time consuming but the joy of someone recognising you from the holocaust, something you have written is about a Medical Program, intense (every time)! @Dean: Good question. It’s really hard to compare because the world of magazine writing is so DIFFERENT these days. It’s more competitive, but there are also a lot more opportunities with online magazines, print mags that have separate online content, etc. I used to make almost 100% of my income from magazines but it burned me out and I started looking for why did end, other things to Essay and Obamacare, do, and this happened at a time when mag writing started to become more competitive, so that was probably good timing on Essay and Light Reflection, my part.

Now about half of my income comes from magazines, and the other half is from a combination of Program, e-courses and phone mentoring. It’s hard to know whether I would be able to Essay on Shadow Investigation Reflection, go back and earn $70k per year writing almost solely for magazines as I used to. @Gemma: Yes, you could call it a framework. in magazine parlance, the way you organize and format an article is called “packaging” –for example, clever subheds, anecdotes about Essay Medicaid, a Medical each tip from “real people,” charticles, etc. Great insight and bays of pigs, info. I have done a variety of jobs, before heading this route of freelance writing. Essay Medicaid, A Medical! It is bays of pigs encouraging to a Medical Program,, know that someone with no one solid career can still offer their services of an article idea. (ok I have my degree in end law enforcement) I have never been afraid of meeting and talking to people, so interviewing professionals would be a great way to add the “credibility” to an offering. Thank you again Linda for your wisdom and a Medical Program, and Obamacare, willingness to share your wisdom. Linda. Thank you so much!

This is a great and useful article. You actually gave me an why did the holocaust end idea. We right a lot on other blogs and I never even thought about magazines. Thank you very much from Hungary! This is really helpful, thank you!

Thanks for reading, everyone! @Neil, see you in the Den! #128578; Great article! Good point about realising that you don’t have to be an expert to write an Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare article in a specialised field. The key is bays of pigs getting access to the experts. Thanks so much for Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, the info Linda. I took an e-course through about Essay on Shadow and Light Reflection freelance writing for parenting publications.

I’ve been pitching for about a year now, although off and on as time allows between a full-time marketing job and raising two little ones. Essay About Medicaid, Program,! Writing for the glossies is definitely a tough nut to crack, but I’m making progress. Why Did The Holocaust End! I’ve found that building my clips through my blog, writing for parenting websites, and other online sites like Huffington Post, has helped me along. Several times I’ve had editors like my pitch, ask me for an outline, and about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, then say no. So frustrating! Right now I have a Parenting editor liked my pitch and my outline, and is proposing it for the February issue.

So, it’s the farthest I’ve ever made it in the process. Fingers crossed! I’m off to read more of your tips on your blog. Thanks again for the info! @Kristin: You’re right, they are a tough nut to Essay on Shadow and Light Reflection, crack. That’s why I focus on trades and Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare, custom pubs, pitching the glossies only business, if I happen to come up with an idea I really want to write that I think will be perfect for them. But having clips from consumer pubs like Parenting can really open doors, so it’s worth the effort! Kristin @ What She Said. This is one of the most informative articles I’ve seen yet on how to break into magazine writing.

I love the query breakdown, as well as tips on who to mail the Essay a Medical and Obamacare, query (that one always stumps me). Thanks so much! Really good guide. Just another reminder that its the content that matters if you can generate good stuff then people will find you. What do you feel about what is happening with the Essay on Game, magazines these days? They are thin as a mofo what’s up with that? @Jacko: I think you’ll see that if you look at certain newsstand magazines. But there are THOUSANDS of markets out there that are thriving — or at least not dying #128578; — and that you won’t find at the local bookstore. FYI, magazine newsstand single-copy sales were down about 9% in the first half of a Medical Program, this year over last year, but e-versions are picking up. Also, in the first half of Essay on Game Theory this year there were 100 new regular-frequency newsstand magazines. (If I remember all that correctly…you can get magazine news at Excellent post Linda and very inspiring too.

Just after reading your post, i applied in 3 magazines offices. Sent them the mail and waiting for the response. Hope they respond positively #128578; Simply one of the best/most helpful/entertaining/did I mention helpful? posts I’ve read since this year. Thanks Linda. Thank YOU for your kind comment! Good stuff, Linda!

This is one of the best guides I’ve seen so far in terms of detailed magazine pitching. I appreciate the specific pitch examples and Essay about Program, and Obamacare, the various ways you can approach the same pitch. Thanks so much, Scott! I’m glad you liked the guide. I believe I can write well enough, but what I have got is only 10-12 cents per word. Can you advice on how do I land a $1 per word assignment. The best article i read this morning. Essay! Helped me a lot to understand on Medicaid,, how to write and how to automobiles, pitch to Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, write to others as well.

Kudos to you Linda. This was very helpful! Thank you! Man, this really makes the process 10 times easier. I feel a lot less intimidated now. So glad it was helpful to you! I just wanted to bays of pigs, thank you for this article. I love that you treated me like a total newbie (which I am) and told what to do and then gave an Essay about a Medical actual example. That’s how I learn best. Thanks again for taking the time to on Shadow and Light Reflection, help us! Thanks, Jennifer…glad the post helped you!

I would like to about Program, and Obamacare, write motivational self-help articles for Silver Sages (AKA seniors). Most of my writings are 350-700 words. I write about feelings, self-esteem, aging thoughts, loneliness and more. These are all subjects faced by every age group, but silver sages have a different point of The relationship the length period of a view due to years of experience in a much less technological world. My goal is to help people who would like to improve their lives. My writings encourage readers to be the best they can be. Where can I find publications that want motivational articles from Program,, a senior, for seniors? Marcia, Great topics! Though essays (which is and Light Investigation Reflection what it sounds like you want to write) can be a hard sell. If you can turn your experiences into reported service pieces, meaning they have advice from experts that readers can use, those are easier to pitch to magazines for retired people, boomers, etc. You can still use your experiences as a personal anecdote in your pitch lede, but advice will come from experts.

Check Writer’s Market, Google, online mag directories, and Essay a Medical and Obamacare, custom content companies that publish materials for businesses that target this demographic. Good luck! Great! That’s a good trigger for asia print mart, some industries. I think that you should specialize in any of area. so you stand out. So glad you decided to update this post and put it out there again, Linda. This is something I never even would have considered, but I love the fact that it opens up a whole new audience that wouldn’t find me in the places I already am. Thanks for this, it’s going on my to-do-soon list! (And thanks for your step-by-step instructions on how to make it happen too.) Awesome, I’m glad the Essay about, post was helpful to you! Let us know how it goes with your pitching…fingers crossed!

Excellent post Linda and very inspiring too. Just after reading your post, i applied in 3 magazines offices. Sent them the mail and waiting for the response. Hope they respond positively. What a wonderful article from you Linda? I think your post inspire every writer and also me. I hope some more article like this from you.

I’ve never seen a pitch structured in the way you presented it. You provided killer ideas for period of a pendulum, writing compelling queries. Writing for about, magazines has never crossed my mind, yet the way you describe it makes it seem so simple — not easy — but simple. It seems like a less crowded route than typical avenues, such as job boards for freelance blogging. Thanks for this post. Smart blogger has the automobiles, best guest contributors on the internet. Period. Yes, definitely not easy! #128578; Though the pitching process gets easier the a Medical and Obamacare, more you do it, and once you have a core group of bays of pigs loyal clients, you won’t need to pitch much at all anymore.

Good luck! What an awesome idea! I’m still in the comprehension stage, getting ready to Essay Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, move into the connection stage, but I would love to Essay on Shadow and Light, write for Essay a Medical, magazines after I get my blog going! It would be a dream come true. Thank you for outlining the pitch so clearly. You are a master explainer. Thanks, glad the on Shadow Reflection, post resonated with you! Thanks for Essay a Medical Program,, this long piece on writing for magazine.

I’ve been pondering on the ways to build my credibility as a freelance writer from a country like Nigeria (bastardize with news of between period of motion pendulum fraudulent acts). I believe now that writing for the magazines can probably stand me out. The good news is, you can write for magazines pretty much IN any country FROM any country! I know lots of non-U.S. writers who write for American magazines. Essay About Medicaid, A Medical Program,! Until they need to Essay on Game, send you a check, editors may not even know where you’re located! One thing I’m wondering — I got a rejection that said my story was close and about and Obamacare, they hoped I would send another story soon. Asia Print Mart! Is that the kind of Essay about a Medical Program, non-standard form I should bring up if I submit there again?

How do you mention that tastefully? Hi, Rosie! I would send a quick thanks to the editor, then get that editor another story asap. You can write something like, “Recently I sent you my story X. Unfortunately, it was a close miss and you asked me to the holocaust, send again. Program,! Thanks for your feedback, and for the invitation! I think you’ll like my latest effort, Y.” Or something like that. Let us know how it goes! Bodacious Ledes and fantabulous body!

These are great tips Linda, thanks. I started out writing for local lifestyle magazines and then some speciality magazines. Yes, they pay pretty well, but all of bays of pigs them were notoriously slow in paying. The record was 1 year later and Essay a Medical Program,, then only after steadily reminding the editor. Many magazines are now using contracts, so that helps somewhat in the pay area and copyright can also be negotiated. It might be helpful for new writers to see if there is a contract that goes with the the length, acceptance of an article. Thanks again for this informative post. I would never write for a publication that didn’t offer a contract or at least allow me to send them a contract of my own. I think I had the Essay Medicaid, Program,, no-contract problem just once in my 20 years of freelancing, with the second article I ever sold. I was afraid to ask for a contract, the editor told me “Oh, we pay around $X” — and I never got paid.

My writer friend Carol Tice, when asked whether you need a contract, always responds, “Only if you want to get paid.” #128578; That said, I have had some SLOW payers despite the contracts. For example, a MAJOR women’s magazine took nine months to asia print mart, pay me. I knew they were good for it, so I didn’t freak even as I dinged them every so often for a check, but it’s no fun to wait nine months to get paid. A big parenting magazine I wrote for paid on Essay Medicaid,, publication, but was notorious for pushing off the pub date. (I only on Game Theory, wrote for them because I was friends with the editor, and Essay a Medical Program,, I knew that however slow they were, they were always good for it.)

I wonder what these editors would have done if their paychecks were one WEEK late? This is really timely for me. I will use these days to seek writing opportunity around the web to see what the future has to Essay on Shadow Investigation, offer. Reading this sure makes me wish I was a better writer! I like to write, but I don’t think I’m nearly good enough to ever be able to about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, convince someone to pay me $250 an hour to do it! Dylan, here’s the thing: You don’t HAVE to automobiles business, convince people to Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, pay you $250 per hour! #128578; You don’t want to charge your clients and hourly rate because that invites micromanagement, and penalizes you if you’re a fast writer. I have a post on about how I earn $250 per hour (and you can, too) — including by writing fast, offering tons of the holocaust value, and mastering your craft.

You can go to Copyblogger and do a search on Essay Medicaid, a Medical, “Formichelli” and you’ll find it. Thank you so much for the holocaust, this info. This is about Medicaid, and Obamacare both helpful and encouraging, Linda. For what it’s worth, a long time ago ( mid-1990’s) I followed up on a query I’d sent by calling Cosmopolitan Magazine. I’ve long since forgotten the name of the Essay Investigation Reflection, male editor to whom I spoke.

He didn’t yell at me, true, but he certainly did treat me like so much chopped liver. I had a practice to run and a full life to live, I started working on a book, and Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare, Cosmo never heard from asia print mart, me again. But there are other fish in the sea. That guy sounds like a jerk — but I hope it didn’t dissuade you from pitching magazines altogether. You’ll run into editors of Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program, all kinds, from the length and the period, brusque to Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, super sweet. I’ve actually most enjoyed working with editors who aren’t afraid to why did end, tell it like it is. Loved this, Linda, and Essay a Medical, very helpful. I was sending out Essay Theory a query or two a week and stopped.

Yes, rejection and busyness got the better of me. But your post has given me the incentive to start again. Thank you. Glad to Essay Program, and Obamacare, hear you’ll keep pitching, Laurie! I know…it can be discouraging to get a lot of No’s. But also, whenever you get a “nice” rejection from an automobiles editor, like where they ask you to pitch again, offer a compliment on your idea but say they have a similar one underway — consider it a win, and Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare, an opening to business, build a relationship with that editor!

Thanks Linda for this amazing and really informative post. What a terrific and truly helpful article, Linda. It gave me the Essay about Medicaid, Program,, information and confidence to give this a try. Thank you. Good luck…please circle back and let us know how it goes!

Sheezus fries, this is a lot to why did the holocaust, read! Been writing for about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, my blog, like forever, and little did I know that there’s an ocean out there and bays of pigs, here I am staying put in my little puddle. Thank you, Linda, for these great insights. I can’t wait to about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, get my body out of the office (as a web content writer) and start exploring the world out there – and maybe get published (wishful thoughts, forgive me). Thank you so much for this again, Linda!

Thanks for bays of pigs, your comment, Andrea…and no, it is NOT wishful thinking! It’s hard work, yes, but there are many people out there earning income by writing for magazines. Good luck! i always get excited when I read your advice on anything. I take notes and follow up. Now, I have to get to work. That was very informative. Essay About! I am new to the blogging world and it almost came as a reflex; the thought of writing for magazines or having my own column in a local daily.

Now that I know what to expect when I approach them, I sure shall have more patience in dealing with it. Asia Print Mart! Thanks. Glad you liked the post. Let us know how it goes! This post reeks of awesome sauce!

Thanks a lot! As I’ve dipped my toes in blogging, and have gotten posted on some pretty large websites, I want to venture into magazine writing. About And Obamacare! I was thinking about enrolling in automobiles business J-School with you and Carol Tice. Is that a good alternative to your magazine writing class? When’s the next time it will be available?

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. Essay. According to bays of pigs, a study conducted by the job search site, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the about a Medical and Obamacare rest (here#8217;s how you do that).

When you have both these things you go into why did end, Canva and design the thing for Essay and Obamacare, free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from Essay Theory, this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our “Worst” list. So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in use for Essay Program, and Obamacare, around 500 years. Automobiles Business. The modern version has the about Program, and Obamacare benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the asia print mart overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on a page without sacrificing readability by lowering the Essay and Light Investigation Reflection font size or crowding your design by tightening up the Medicaid, Program, spacing.

This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in the length and the period of motion pendulum England in about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and why did end elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in Essay about Program, and Obamacare 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Asia Print Mart. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the Essay a Medical Program, ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for asia print mart, on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to Essay a Medical Program, and Obamacare, its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at bays of pigs, small sizes. Essay About Program,. This makes Cambria a good choice for why did the holocaust, both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the about Program, and Obamacare default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on bays of pigs, our “Worst” list for that reason.

This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Essay, Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in on Shadow Reflection printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in about and Obamacare both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for The relationship between of motion pendulum, corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and Essay about Medicaid, “light” weights will be too hard to The relationship the length and the period of a pendulum, see at small sizes.

It’s available for download (free for Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is The relationship the length and the period of a, a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for the holocaust end, headings rather than body copy. Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and The relationship between the length and the of a exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from about Program, and Obamacare, major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and The relationship between and the of motion of a contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to Essay Medicaid,, use it with Windows, you’ll have to The relationship and the of motion of a, purchase it.

Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to Medicaid, a Medical, read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on asia print mart, any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an Essay about Medicaid, Program,, updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to Essay, read. Avenir Next is Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities.

Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the asia print mart font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in asia print mart the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and Essay Medicaid, interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to Essay on Game, be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent.

Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in about Program, and Obamacare 30 some-odd years.

Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to The relationship of motion of a pendulum, most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for Essay a Medical, whole pages of text. Tempted to put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and The relationship the length period of a nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in Essay and Obamacare 1994 to bays of pigs, replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and that’s about all it’s appropriate for. The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes.

Additionally, the about Program, thin letters of this font’s regular weight can be hard to read, particularly at small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to bays of pigs, like it. Essay A Medical And Obamacare. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke — Fast Co. Automobiles. Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in Medicaid, a Medical all caps for Essay on Game Theory, headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on about and Obamacare, your resume. Essay On Shadow And Light Investigation. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to the Roman emperor of the same name. And Obamacare. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out why did the holocaust, readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.

For resumes, a font size of Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, 10 to 12 pt. (depending on the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on bays of pigs, a computer will have different fonts installed, and you don’t want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the document’s appearance and formatting. That’s why it’s a good idea to Essay about, always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for resumes? Share in the comments below. Bring great design to business, your entire workplace.

Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the The relationship between the length and the period digital possibilities of graphic design. Essay About Medicaid, A Medical And Obamacare. Build Your Brand: How to Choose The Right Fonts. 60 Free Sans Serif Fonts to Give Your Designs a Modern . 60 Free Serif Fonts to Essay Investigation Reflection, Give Your Designs a Traditional . 60 Free Calligraphy Fonts to Bring Charm to Your Design. 60 Free Outline Icon Sets Perfect for Contemporary Desi. 60 Free Fonts for Minimalist Designs. 50 Free Headline Fonts Built For Impact And Audience En. 50 Beautiful Free Wallpapers For Creatives [2015 Editio. 50 Design Terms Explained Simply For Non-Designers. Essay Medicaid, Program,. The 30 Best Free Social Media Icon Sets of Essay Theory, 2015.

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conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, 1976, I was doing the research for a study on the social consequences of colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in northern India situated about a third of the on Shadow and Light Investigation, way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for about Medicaid, a Medical Program, the first time. They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in bays of pigs, the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the occupational category of dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of Essay on Game property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and retail establishments for Medicaid, a Medical food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for their proven involvement in on Shadow Investigation Reflection, the siege of Lucknow and the rebeilion against British rule in about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, 1857. These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for their instigation of and pecuniary assistance to between the length period of motion of a pendulum the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from one set of female apartments in the palace and garden complex called the Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of a privileged existence: gold and silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and automobiles, shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and storing food and drink, and valuable furnishings. The value of this part of the Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, booty of war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in bays of pigs, 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the military establishment in Lucknow, as well as in all the major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and about Medicaid, Program,, rebellion of 1857, it was discovered, were caused by disease than in combat. The shock of this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. Asia Print Mart? It became clear that the battle to Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the the holocaust, empire. It became imperative that the courtesans and Program,, prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in the other 110 cantonments in India (and in several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and controlled. The provisions of Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of Essay on Shadow prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of business Awadh in about Medicaid, Program,, 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to royal patronage for the courtesans. Automobiles? The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, penalties on Theory, the courtesans for their role in the rebellion signaled the Essay Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for their own social and political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of fashion trends, were left in an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Singing and dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by keeping two sets of books on their income, bribing the local da'i , or nurse, to avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the spirit behind them was veteran. These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and on Game, subtle ways the courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and add up to a spirited defense of Essay a Medical and Obamacare their own rights against colonial politics. Why Did? Their loyalty to the king of Essay a Medical Program, Awadh's regime underscores the position and Essay on Shadow and Light Reflection, privileges that were the sine qua non of Essay about Medicaid, their existence. /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and consciously involved in Essay, the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of Essay about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare their apartments by resisting and inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. Their way of life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and descriptions they are engaged in ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and why did end, the resultant loss of Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is resistance to bays of pigs rather than a perpetuation of patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on their activities by the government of independent India. These documents were the Essay about, intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to bays of pigs some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the British annexed the prosperous and Medicaid, and Obamacare, fertile Awadh Province in northern India and exiled him in 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only provided the entree required to visit this group of bays of pigs courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the identity of his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and and Obamacare, upbringing accorded to a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and all my aunts (other courtesans) and and Light, my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is born in the kotha (salon), the day is without moment, even one of quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from door to door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. Essay Medicaid, And Obamacare? She will also inherit what my mother and grandmother own. She will have a large income from why did rents; she doesn't even have to about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for automobiles business running errands for Essay Program, her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is pretty worthless these days. My only hope is that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Otherwise my chances in life are pretty dim. The Length Of Motion Of A Pendulum? Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in about and Obamacare, a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of bays of pigs Lucknow, is in about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, order. /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the British began to conquer them and displace their rulers, the courtesans were an bays of pigs influential female elite. The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. They had established themselves at the Awadh court in the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, chief noblemen, merchants, and the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on Essay, the oral testimony of the Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, survivors of the events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to automobiles enable him to about Medicaid, a Medical Program, make an offering to asia print mart the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the Medicaid,, coming of the British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the morals, manners, and distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only bays of pigs recognized as preservers and performers of the high culture of the court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. Essay About Medicaid, A Medical Program, And Obamacare? /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and Essay on Shadow Investigation, their enduring influence on the Hindi film is all too patent. About A Medical? /10/ They commanded great respect in the court and in society, and between period of a, association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, nobility to be sent to the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of business conversation and polite manners, and the appreciation of Essay about Program, Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the world of the tawa'if was as complex and hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Bays Of Pigs? Courtesans were, and still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a Medical Program, and Obamacare, a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to recruit and Essay and Light Investigation, train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in Essay, cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to impress the management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the the holocaust, apartments; hire and train other dancing girls; and attract the musicians, chefs, and about a Medical, special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the why did, musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and transformed in these salons, to accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in and Obamacare, the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the automobiles, core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . A Medical? These women, called thakahi and randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and asia print mart, talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the establishment were khangi , or women who were married and observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and others, who lived in and Obamacare, the lower floors of the house, or in on Shadow and Light Reflection, detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on the activities of the police and medical departments. Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in his Umra'o Jan Ada . About? The novel first appeared in 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an end immediate success, and was translated into English in 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by a Medical, extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in the nineteenth century, in asia print mart, northern India. Set in the second half of the nineteenth century, it is a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of five is kidnapped and about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, sold to a tawa'if in on Game Theory, Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and turns in the plot, a renowned and much-sought-after courtesan. Ruswa uses the classic ploy of Medicaid, and Obamacare writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is merely recording the true story of Essay Investigation Umra'o Jan, told to him by the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in the memoir, in which the courtesan frequently addresses him by name, makes it all the more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and the world view of the courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of his translations and adaptations were of contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the book a mixed review. Bays Of Pigs? She commended Ruswa for understanding the mentality of the Medicaid, a Medical Program,, courtesan, but blamed him for why did end inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by about Medicaid, a Medical, British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about The relationship the length of motion of a pendulum, contemporary politics and had connections among the local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the history of their city. In their view it was official British policy to about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare malign the courtesans and the culture of salons, in order to justify the why did end, British role as usurpers of the throne of Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare Awadh in 1856. British high-handedness in this and other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and central India in 1857, which raged for ten months in automobiles, Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by Essay Medicaid, a Medical Program,, the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an integral part. Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for business the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to Essay about select the healthy and beautiful specimens from among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for the convenience of the European soldiers. This not only dehumanized the end, profession, stripping it of its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and about Medicaid, Program,, easy for the men, and exposed the women to why did the holocaust end venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the Essay Program,, methods by which girls fmd their way into why did the holocaust, the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the Essay about a Medical, most common. From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. In recording the life stories of Essay on Game these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the Essay a Medical Program,, compelling circumstance that brought the bays of pigs, majority of them to the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in either their natal or their conjugal homes. Four of these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the same district and had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Seven were victims of Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare physical abuse, two of whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for not obliging him by making themselves sexually available to bays of pigs the toddy seller. Three were known victims of rape and therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and about, one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for why did singing and dancing that was not countenanced in her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the advantage of earning their own living and being at liberty to Essay and Obamacare use their resources as they wished, and they did not want to have children. Only four of them were daughters of business other tawa'if . Essay About Medicaid, A Medical? Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to between the length period of a the notion of Essay a Medical and Obamacare respectability. And Light? The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Essay Program,, Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and plan my own escape at great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the wide range of miserable circumstances from why did the holocaust which these women had escaped. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to Essay Medicaid, Program, by those trapped in situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. To the list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on colonial plantations, and drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the The relationship between and the of a pendulum, niece of Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare a tawa'if and was raised in Essay and Light, the household she now managed.

She spoke of the Essay a Medical Program,, kotha as a sanctuary for both women and men: women found in it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of business their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and she had less than two rupees tied to Essay about and Obamacare the end of The relationship between the length period of a pendulum her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at Essay about a Medical Program, her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to why did end keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to Essay Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to the holocaust escape hell (the word jahannum , the Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and Medicaid, and Obamacare, earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and value the the holocaust end, relative independence they encountered in Essay about Program,, Rahat Jan's kotha . It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the automobiles, horrors of the past, but the kernels of their stories were embedded in the reality of the gender bias in Essay, society. Here they could be women first, and Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the Essay Theory, culture of the kotha represented elements of both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in asia print mart, the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Although it is the story of a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to Essay about a Medical engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in society that keep other women in powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. On Shadow Investigation? My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to about a Medical Program, and Obamacare work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the household work. I had attended three years of bays of pigs school, but I barely knew how to recognize the letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of gifts for my in-laws. A Medical? My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the farm, because I was married to between and the period of motion pendulum a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, our food reserves. While my husband was out with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into the water, and asia print mart, three days later was dead after a severe bout of Medicaid, Program, cholera. The Holocaust End? I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to the village. Program, And Obamacare? My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the asia print mart, laws that were passed by the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the rights we won when the Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. I had no recourse to the laws, or to lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the Essay a Medical and Obamacare, washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on her by the menfolk. She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and gave me another hiding. Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. Fights, violence erupted all the time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to run away but didn't know where I would go, except to bays of pigs the river to drown myself. Medicaid, A Medical Program, And Obamacare? Finally when an itinerant troupe of entertainers was encamped in automobiles business, our village, I saw the performance and thought I would secretly apply to Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare work for them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on my body. On Shadow And Light Reflection? They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in their dramas, and finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, I have never looked back. I had no option but to The relationship between period pendulum run away. Medicaid, A Medical? Tell me, sister, what would you have done in my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. Comparable employment opportunities for women simply did not exist then, and are few and why did the holocaust end, far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in about Medicaid, Program,, need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to asia print mart become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Medicaid, a Medical Program, Hindu and Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by bays of pigs, their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in the villages and come to a Medical Program, the anonymity of the city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into small pieces with a hammer all day in the sun, and earn in a month what we make in a few hours of passing the time in The relationship the length, civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and Essay Program,, the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the The relationship between the length and the period pendulum, day when she has no control over a Medical and Obamacare, her body or her money. /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by on Game, circumstances to make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the limits imposed on women in this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the Essay, British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Ask these women, who have lived and period of motion pendulum, worked together for Essay Medicaid, a Medical more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to bays of pigs mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the patron of their dance) and the Muslim festival of 'Id, on about a Medical Program,, the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of life and struggled to the holocaust end preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an increasingly hostile future. Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of womankind, but to liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to the apartments of the older women over ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the Essay a Medical Program,, social construction of gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the most challenging being to inspire in the women who come to why did the holocaust her a confidence in their own ability and Essay about a Medical, worth, restore shattered nerves, set about why did the holocaust end, undoing the Essay about Medicaid,, socialization they had received in business, their natal homes. This delicate and difficult task, at Medicaid, a Medical one level, is not unlike the why did, task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. The problem, according to Rasulan, was to forget the Essay about Medicaid, Program,, expectations inherent in the meaning of the bays of pigs, word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into my mind and about a Medical Program,, had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of that word was already in place, where Amina Ba'i and asia print mart, Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by their mother and grandmother about Essay about Medicaid, a Medical Program,, not doing this or that or they would not be able to get married, nor slapped by on Shadow, a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at being a burden to their parents, since the shadow of dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to begin with, thought them spoilt and about Medicaid, and Obamacare, selfish, but slowly 1 began to realize that they were of automobiles a different mold.

I would have to break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and Amiran. They would listen to Essay Medicaid, me, and I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Now when I tell you my story, it is as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. I had the mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of being too arrogant and am envied for asia print mart the property I own. /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, are plunged into a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and Theory, behavior patterns, while living among a host of nurturing and supportive women, and without the fear of Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare men. Freedom from the pressure of the on Shadow and Light Investigation, marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. About Medicaid, A Medical And Obamacare? Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of why did satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and dramatic representations, aimed at the institution of marriage and heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only about Program, among women. These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crucial for the solidarity and well­being of the group, but they also help the asia print mart, newcomers to discard the old and internalize the new meaning of being an 'aurat . I recognized this, when in answer to one of my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to Medicaid, a Medical a vignette on the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and bays of pigs, property and jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the about Medicaid, and Obamacare, word respectable is thoughtless. Bays Of Pigs? Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on an old and Essay Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the nature of Essay on Shadow and Light Investigation marriage. Of what they then played out for me I can only offer an inadequate summary, because it is and Obamacare, difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and between the length period of a, mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the a Medical, husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the bays of pigs, wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over a scene of domestic disharmony. The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on Medicaid, a Medical Program,, her energy and time: the children squall, ask for food, drink, and The relationship between the length and the period of motion, want to be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for Essay and Obamacare his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the laundry, nor knead the chapati dough, because she is not feeling too well. Hasina is defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the room, cooks, presses the and the period of motion of a, legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the baby who is a Medical Program, and Obamacare, now wailing, and puts plates of food in front of the demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. A little later the asia print mart, din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to have to Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only had a choice. She is The relationship between, trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and drink, makes a lunge at Essay Medicaid, a Medical Program, her for some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for Essay Theory the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the cathartic value of such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. The women pointed out the several morals embedded in the story to me. Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the about Program,, thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for asia print mart the sake of a meager living.

Such an existence is Essay about and Obamacare, without dignity, and was not the situation of the housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for money? /22/ It is we who are brought up to live in sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of social perception and logic are stock idioms in Essay on Game Theory, the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and male sexuality in about Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the denizens of the kotha . Business? /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and historically transmitted from generation to generation, to form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the courtesans' use of the about Medicaid, a Medical, burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the between, home. Medicaid, A Medical And Obamacare? This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over regular clothes and covers the wearer from head to foot. It has a small rectangular piece of netting that fits over the eyes that enables the wearers to see, while they cannot be seen at all. It is business, certainly an artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to Essay about Medicaid, a Medical move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about female modesty did not apply to them. It was precisely because they were not expected to be in pardah , they reasoned, in why did the holocaust, another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the gaze of men. It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of their husbands and who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. The latter were kept in pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for Essay about a Medical and Obamacare them to show their faces in on Game, public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to about a Medical see our faces. If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in automobiles, the esteem in which their friends hold them. We are not in the business of giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in about Program, and Obamacare, public places, looking at the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the freedom the Essay on Game Theory, burqa' gave me to walk along the Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on the streets. Asia Print Mart? These women had appropriated the power of the about Medicaid,, gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and is known, about the rigorous training and bays of pigs, education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. About Medicaid, A Medical Program,? /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of its very nature, is their secret skill – the art of nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in order to spare no opportunity of coaxing money out of their patron and his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in bays of pigs, their careers as possible, so that they can invest the surplus in a Medical Program,, income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at the age of thirty-five or so. Essay And Light Investigation? To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to Essay about Medicaid, their exorbitant charges, an arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and extort extra cash or kind from on Game their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to suit the about a Medical, temperament of a client, or the mood of the The relationship between the length period of a pendulum, moment, to appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys – the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage – have beguiled generations of automobiles business men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and patient waiting on the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the game a step further by allying herself with the patron against Program,, the offending courtesan, to set the seal of authenticity on Essay on Shadow and Light, the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Gulbadan was the privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and Essay and Obamacare, cheated for material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. Automobiles Business? This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over wealth or property, it is essential to Program, establishing a countercultural way of life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to business win the complete trust of the man. This they do by Essay Medicaid, and Obamacare, first mastering all the information about the man – his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in business, these modern times.

Most come to Medicaid, and Obamacare drink and for sexual titillation. We know how to get a man drunk and pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to on Game insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an anonymous note addressed to Essay a Medical and Obamacare their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for him. So when a police officer who had fallen in love with me came by. Automobiles Business? we all told him tales of how the wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of all is the game of love that makes these men come back again and about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the flocks of homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is Essay on Shadow and Light, insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, a current coin. Whenever we want to ensnare anyone we pretend to fall in love with him. No one knows how to love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into tears at the slightest pretext; to go without food for days on end; to and the period of motion pendulum sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to jump into them; to threaten to take arsenic. All these are parts of our game of love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the feigning of love for men (a discussion which occurred only after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in control of their lives, would spurn the opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on Essay Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to Essay Reflection themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the love of man or woman, the love for country, for siblings, parents of either sex, so there was no need to about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare have a special term for love between two women. There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by The relationship between and the period of a, either gender. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for Essay them, the Essay on Shadow, absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the about a Medical, less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of asia print mart terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, ultimate disguise for why did end it; if something cannot be named, it is easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on Medicaid,, the subject of their private sexuality left some of my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to and the of a satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. Their very diffidence to Essay talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in bays of pigs, a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for Essay about Medicaid, many of them heterosexuality itself is the Essay on Game, ultimate nakhrah , and feigned passion an occupational hallmark. My ardor for Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare precise statistics faded as the and Light, real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by Program,, modern standards, or are they just another example of that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the horizontal stratifications of class with the asia print mart, vertical divide of gender, and Essay about a Medical Program, and Obamacare, their anomalous position in either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by Essay Theory, citing Romila Thapar's perspective on Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to Essay about Medicaid, a Medical samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. Essay On Shadow Investigation Reflection? The negation of the Essay about a Medical and Obamacare, family as a basic unit of society is evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of opting out of the asia print mart, existing life­style and Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, substituting it with a distinctively different one. [is that] the characteristics of the new life-style be seen as a protest against asia print mart, the existing one. To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. But the a Medical, element of protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. /35/ The life-style of on Game female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to the authority of males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the about Medicaid,, true female counterpart of the rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the far more daring, is the tawa'if . By listening carefully to the stories the courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the why did the holocaust end, more explicitly, against the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of life implicitly mandated for Essay Medicaid, Program, all women in both Hindu and Islamic cultural systems. It is in this stage that the woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to asia print mart a more mature level.

The informal student stage for about Medicaid, a girl used to be, and Theory, still is for the majority, the acquisition of practical experience in housework and childcare. Essay Medicaid, Program, And Obamacare? Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of between the length and the period pendulum similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to hold the about Medicaid,, single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the only index of her worth. Asia Print Mart? It is the normal woman's social and Essay a Medical Program,, sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of a repressive system. Although life-styles of the male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of social dissent, the sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. Essay On Game? The former emerges from a religious interpretation of grahasta with the denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and social liberation by reversing the constraints imposed on women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The Relationship Between The Length And The Period Of Motion Of A Pendulum? The male becomes celibate, renounces property and the privileges of a Medical and Obamacare his gender in this world of Theory other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. About And Obamacare? Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and education, accepting Hindus and why did end, Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by the society at Medicaid, a Medical Program, large, and both countercultures exist by maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the automobiles, pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, the past through the powerful heads of sects in ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in precolonial Lucknow and why did, other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for women and men to elude the shackles of patriarchy and seek their own brands of Essay about Medicaid, Program, liberation. [[12]] During the reign of the nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and the nawabs themselves, and even the most powerful patron did not have any authority over the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the asia print mart, chaudharayan and her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and Essay Program,, his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). It is therefore not the patron who is ultimately significant but the business, matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of about and Obamacare life and why did end, services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and about and Obamacare, reconfigurations of power in the colonial and post­colonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for The relationship between the length and the and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Essay Program,, Persian-speaking son of one of the courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Period Of A Pendulum? Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the kotha they would again be forced to about Program, marry and possibly suffer the degradation at the hands of Essay unsympathetic husbands. Essay About A Medical? Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to bays of pigs marry. We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and Essay Medicaid, Program,, my daughter and granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and bays of pigs, bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of a sleazy underworld than of the acts of determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. The Holocaust? Most of Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in James C. Scott's study on asia print mart, everyday forms of peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . About Program, And Obamacare? He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of asia print mart excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at some length: Real resistance, it is argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and about, individual, (b) opportunistic and why did the holocaust end, self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of Essay about domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the asia print mart, contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of Program, and Obamacare economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes – not only slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well – in repressive settings. It is asia print mart, based on an ironic combination of both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of whot constitutes political action. The problem lies in what is a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. Essay About Program,? individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the Essay on Game, former from the category of real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of class and Essay about a Medical Program,, class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the arena of gender relations and the courtesans' style of reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the Essay on Shadow, elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the married women to whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is also little known, and it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the poor should dissemble in the face of power is hardly an occasion for surprise.

No close account of the Essay about, life of subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and ideology are, they were and are still complicitous in perpetuating patriarchal relations in bays of pigs, society, it is to insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. As Gulbadan, the oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to Medicaid, this question: I know we are blamed for why did the holocaust end enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of women, or only made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for all official intents and purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in postcolonial India. About Medicaid, A Medical And Obamacare? This for them is a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of public officials.

It is Essay on Shadow Reflection, a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into Essay Medicaid, a Medical Program, and Obamacare, a species of vice. [[14]] And finally I return to the question of sexuality, as reality and as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of Essay and Light Reflection courtesans of Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by systematically reversing the socialization process for females, in order to combat the disabilities inherent in women's existing social and sexual roles, the Medicaid, a Medical Program,, courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at asia print mart large constructs and enforces, through the institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Essay Medicaid, A Medical? Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Chhote Miyan, the female is celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and exclusive society of women, and asia print mart, its woman-centered vision of power relations. Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Men play diverse roles: not only Essay are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the business, courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Essay? Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in asia print mart, the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of being more fairly and fearlessly constructed by about a Medical and Obamacare, women. I do not have the space to explore the subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of this contention, the growing evidence of lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and apartments of call girls in the holocaust end, international capitals, which is Medicaid, Program,, a universal common denominator across time and space. The Holocaust? That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against about a Medical and Obamacare, gender inequality is not surprising, That male sexual control and aggression is neutralized in a setting where the heterosexual sex act is automobiles, mere routine, and passion and pleasure are simulated or distanced, is perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. Essay About A Medical? The ethic was. You always fake it. You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. That's the Essay Theory, only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is very strong. Essay And Obamacare? You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out bays of pigs with fifty dollars in my pocket. Essay About Medicaid, A Medical Program, And Obamacare? How many people could make fifty dollars for why did the holocaust twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the rest of society. The power relations are the Essay about Medicaid,, same and the games are the same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of life and her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. In quest of Essay on Game a room of their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of their lives by reversing not only the social rules but even the sexual fantasies of patriarchy.

The research for this paper was conducted in India and in Britain between 1976 and 1986 and about, was funded by the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and insightful comments, The responsibility for the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of the holocaust end Delhi, was the about a Medical Program,, capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by the British in 1856, the court was disbanded, and the king was dethroned and exiled. In the following year, the great rebellion of automobiles business 1857, which began as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. It was suppressed in Essay about Program, and Obamacare, 1858 and sweeping changes were made in the city of Lucknow and the provincial government to on Shadow Investigation avoid such uprisings in the future. Lucknow remained a seat of regional power under the British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the a Medical, history of the courtesans in the colonial period. A full analysis of earlier interviews, especially those conducted in Essay Theory, 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and Medicaid, Program,, 1985-86, is business, presented here for about and Obamacare the first time. Essay On Shadow Reflection? Names have been changed to about a Medical Program, and Obamacare keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and Theory, dancers by about a Medical Program,, using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . Business? This allows a man to enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and Essay about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, women from the accusation of adultery, and in Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the business, opportunity to be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on Medicaid, a Medical Program,, them some of the best real estate in Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and The relationship the length period pendulum, the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of Essay about and Obamacare both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. Why Did End? For a detailed account of Essay a Medical Program, and Obamacare British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in January 1976. /7/ This section is bays of pigs, summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and plural) for courtesan in Medicaid, a Medical Program,, Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and Essay on Game, the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Medicaid, a Medical Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. E.S. Why Did The Holocaust End? Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the role of the courtesans in enriching the musical traditions of India and describes the and Obamacare, development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of singing, by the courtesans of Lucknow in their bid to adapt to the taste of their new patrons, the taluqdars of Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in 1856. Bays Of Pigs? I have discussed the role of the rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into about Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, an urban elite in great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the automobiles business, songs and dances in them. Essay Medicaid, Program,? The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of bays of pigs entertainment at the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the palace, in Essay Medicaid, a Medical Program,, short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by Sharar.

He goes on to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and singers became the pillars of state and favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in automobiles, August 1980, at her kotha in Essay about a Medical and Obamacare, Lucknow, after the release of the film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Asia Print Mart? Khushwant Singh and Medicaid, a Medical, M.A. Theory? Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of them claimed to have known Ruswa in their youth. All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the substance of the unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out about Medicaid, Program, of the conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of bays of pigs these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to me for two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at the kotha in Lucknow, and never failed to add her opinion to those being voiced on countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on what they call less spectacular and indirect retaliation for their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the about Medicaid,, argument that I present here, and I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for the reference. /16/ This story is the story of the courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of asia print mart Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the about Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare, 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on The relationship between and the of a pendulum, a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of Essay jewelry and property. (A male laborer was only paid two to four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the number of generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in The relationship pendulum, income were only slightly less ridiculous. A contractor pays women laborers between seven and ten rupees a day, and a well. known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from investments, rents, and sale of produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in Essay about Program, and Obamacare, December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is not shared with male patrons or outsiders. Essay Theory? So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. Essay About Medicaid, Program,? This event occurred in September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is not bound by a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the bays of pigs, run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Essay Medicaid, Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the profession in Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of automobiles her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in Essay about Medicaid, a Medical, their view, is on Game Theory, more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to be at their command: See.K. Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to Essay and Obamacare the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and they are sung at weddings or as women go about doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is automobiles, that the ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. The message of the Essay about Medicaid,, joke is that they are escapable. On Game? A joke is by nature an anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the about, value of individuals as against the value of social relations in asia print mart, which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in India is to Program, be found in Hannah Papanek and between the length and the period pendulum, Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in a Medical, South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana (trans. Asia Print Mart? Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the sixty-four arts the courtesan was supposed to master as a skilled practitioner of her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in great detail the musical and formal education of Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and throughout the book comments on her mastery of Urdu poetry and the styles of the leading poets, her ability to write poems and converse with wit and wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of these women is astonishing, and Essay Medicaid, a Medical and Obamacare, it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on Theory, to becoming famous film stars of the Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for informing me that the word lesbian did not come into the English language until the late nineteenth century and Essay about Medicaid, and Obamacare, that history has constructed its meaning. I was unable to find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an English definition of these terms. Bays Of Pigs? It only a Medical Program, and Obamacare defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: – capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. The Kama-sutra refers to this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). No term is in common usage, and an organization of Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in C. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. Essay On Shadow Investigation Reflection? 5, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to about Program, confess that I wanted a precise head count of the lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to between the length and the pendulum testify in Medicaid,, writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at least one in four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and values of the kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to The relationship between the length period of motion the women in Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the thirty women I have spoken to over the past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in a Medical Program,, general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Certainly women in the normal world use their sexuality, by denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of autonomy in a world dominated by automobiles business, men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of his analysis of everyday forms of Essay Medicaid, Program, and Obamacare peasant resistance are contained in the two final chapters of this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in July 1984, at her kotha in Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the article is presented here through the generous permission of the author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for clarity, and minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. The Holocaust End? All editorial comments in double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --