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Effects of Gun Control Essay

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Reflexivity: A Concept and its Meanings for Practitioners Working with Children and Effects Control, Families. Senior Lecturer in per meaning Social Work. School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Philip Gillingham, B.A. (Hons), M.S.W., CQSW. Lecturer in Social Work.

School of Effects of Gun Essay, Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Waterfront campus. Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Bethany Community Support. North Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Reflexivity is a concept that is culture influence the development of roman civilization, increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in Effects Essay relation to working with uncertainty and culture, as an Control Essay, important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice.

This article discusses how practitioners working in child and teenage mother, family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the concept of reflexivity for of Gun Control Essay, their practice, as one of the outcomes of larger, collaborative research project. This project was conducted through a series of workshops with practitioners. The overall research that aimed to teenage mother expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice, included the concept of reflexivity as an alternative or a complement to of Gun Control Essay instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations. This article discusses how the concept of reflexivity was explored in the research and how practitioners interpreted the concept for their practice. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for professional practice, we also recognise that individual practitioners interpret concepts (in ways that are both practically and contextually relevant), thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Reflexivity is a concept that is increasingly gaining currency in professional practice literature, particularly in relation to working with uncertainty (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and as an and Epigenetics, important feature of professional discretion and ethical practice (Fook 1996, 1999; Taylor White, 2000). In an of Gun Essay, earlier article (D’Cruz, Gillingham Melendez, 2007), the authors critically reviewed the social work literature to explore the many meanings of the concept of reflexivity for social work theory, practice and research. In our previous article, we demonstrated how terms such as ‘reflexivity’, ‘reflectivity’ and ‘critical reflection’ are used by different authors to mean very different things (sometimes interchangeably) ( for example, Jessup Rogerson, 1999, p. How Did Greek Influence! 176; Leonard, 1999,p. vii; Pease Fook, 1999, pp. Effects Of Gun Control Essay! 13, 17, 231; Boud, 1999; Briggs, 1999; Rea, 2000; Mosca Yost, 2001).

We proposed that there were three main variations in the meaning of the concept, each of which had slightly different, though at in pro per meaning, times overlapping, consequences for social work practice. These variations are summarized below. In the first variation, reflexivity is regarded as an individual’s considered response to Effects of Gun Essay an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to process information and create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004). Teenage Mother! In the second variation, reflexivity is defined as a social worker’s self-critical approach that questions how knowledge about clients is generated and, further, how relations of power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor and White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000). In the third variation, reflexivity is concerned with the part that emotion plays in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). We surmised that the diversity of meanings that emerge from a critical analysis of terms such as ‘reflexivity’ and ‘reflection’ is indicative that such concepts are relatively new to social work and their meanings for the profession are still being debated. Further, that the diversity of Essay, meanings increases the possibilities for expanding practice repertoires and debate should be encouraged rather than some form of and Epigenetics, closure sought. In this article we discuss how practitioners working in Essay child and family welfare/protection organisations understood and interpreted the concept of reflexivity for their practice, as one of the outcomes of a larger, collaborative research project. The overall research aimed to expand practitioners’ practice repertoires from narrowly-defined risk assessment, to and customs an approach that could account for the uncertainties of practice through a range of concepts (D’Cruz, et al., 2004; D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005; D’Cruz et al., in press).

Reflexivity was one of these concepts, that we introduced to of Gun Control participants as an alternative or a complement to short instrumental accountability that is increasingly a feature in child welfare/protection organisations (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). As discussed further below (see also D’Cruz et al., in press) a theoretical aim of the research was to explore how a concept, such as reflexivity, drawn from a social constructionist paradigm could be combined with practice approaches dominated by instrumental accountability. The question of how practitioners might combine the two was central as, in theory, the approaches are considered to Essay be incommensurable. We conclude that while concepts like reflexivity are central to formal theories for professional practice, it must also be recognised that individual practitioners interpret concepts, thus creating practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts. Professional practice in contemporary child and family welfare/protection organisations. From the mid-1980s to the end of the in pro per meaning 1990s, child and family policy and practice in many western countries such as the UK, the US and Australia became increasingly proceduralised and bureaucratised (Howe, 1992) following coronial and public inquiries into the deaths and serious injuries to children in the care of their parents/caregivers.

Risk management through risk assessment checklists was the preferred approach that aimed to minimise “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993) seen as consequences of professional discretion and autonomy, and Effects of Gun Essay, “subjective” decision making (Reder, Duncan Gray, 1993). Short Speech! Risk assessment criteria as prescriptive checklists represented rationality that could manage the uncertainty and of Gun Control Essay, unpredictability associated with ensuring the care and protection of children living with their parents (Parton, 1998), and thus minimise or eradicate “practice mistakes” (Walton, 1993). Essay! Professionals including social workers were expected to adhere to procedures, with “substantive accountability” to Effects of Gun clients (children and families) replaced by and Epigenetics Essay “instrumental accountability” to the organisation (Bauman, 1987). The proliferation of research and literature critiquing these developments in child and family welfare/protection organisations has generated alternatives that recognise the necessity for professional discretion and participatory ethical practice with children and parents. These alternatives include the recognition of both the Control Essay “dangers” and “opportunities” presented by protective practice (Ferguson, 1997), the importance of critically-reflective practice and “dialogue” (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a) between parents, children and practitioners, and malaysian culture, reflexive practice that foregrounds the connections between professional knowledge and professional power in situated practice (Taylor White, 2000). The theoretical perspective informing many of these critiques and practice alternatives is social constructionism, that offers justification for re-introducing professional discretion and autonomy, on Effects of Gun Essay the grounds that all social practices including professional practice, involve people making meaning through social processes (Parton et al., 1997; D’Cruz, 2004). This perspective challenges the implicit assumption of instrumentalist risk assessment approaches that there is an objective truth about the per meaning care and protection of children that can be established if prescribed assessment procedures are followed. In some contexts, such as in Britain, these critiques have influenced changes in child and family policy and practice so that instrumentalist forms of risk assessment have been replaced by broader family-focused approaches (Ferguson, 1997; Parton, 1997).

However, in the Australian context where the research discussed in this article was conducted, instrumentalist risk assessment approaches continue to dominate, as evidenced by the continued use and Effects of Gun, implementation of the and Epigenetics Essay Victorian Risk Framework (DHS, 1999) and ‘Structured Decision Making’ in of Gun Control Essay South Australia (Hetherington, 1999) and short about, Queensland (Leeks, 2006). Control Essay! A full discussion about malaysian culture, why risk assessment approaches continue to dominate in Australia is, however, beyond the scope of this article. Exploring an expanded practice repertoire: a summary of the research. The research that is discussed in this article incorporates these approaches within a conceptual framework that explicitly recognises both risk assessment and social constructionism as important to professional practice. Effects! We have not dismissed the necessity for risk assessment in some form, nor do we believe it is in pro per meaning, productive to dismiss the organisational contexts in which practitioners work. Instead we have explored the possibilities of an approach that accepts the practical, ethical, professional and legal bases for risk assessment, and the opportunities for the space of practice that is silenced organisationally and for individuals namely, the discretionary aspects of practice. This research emerged from the first author’s PhD research, which explored how meanings and identities were constructed in child protection practice (D’Cruz, 1999; 2004), rather than being predictable outcomes as absolute ‘realities’ achieved by heavily proceduralised and instrumental practice informed by Control Essay the risk paradigm (Howe, 1992; Parton et al., 1997). The approach taken that accommodates both perspectives ( D’Cruz, 1999; 2004, p. 255-261), described as “juxtaposing seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) in post-modern thought, explored the possibilities of putting together concepts or phenomena that might be considered as mutually exclusive or polarities (Hassard, 1993). For example, ideas of “realism” (as absolute, objective reality) and “relativism” (reality is relative, being constructed by participants) (Edwards, Ashmore Potter, 1995) are usually seen as mutually exclusive and oppositional concepts.

This approach is known as “dualism” (Heap, 1995), that accepts a physical reality that may generate a variety of plausible, and relative explanations and meanings depending on the situated positioning of participants (Reason and Bradbury, 2001, p. 6). For child welfare/protection, a dualist position allows for an acceptance of tissue, children’s lived experiences that include material disadvantage, oppression and trauma, and the necessity for Effects of Gun Control Essay, ‘risk assessment’, while also acknowledging that these experiences may be explained and understood from many, competing perspectives (D’Cruz, 2004; D’Cruz et al., 2004). Child protection practitioners usually have to negotiate these multiple explanations in each case and decide which version is ‘truth’. The research that explored the possibilities of teenage mother, expanding the Effects Control Essay practice repertoire available to child protection practitioners incorporated three dimensions: theories of knowledge and power, related professional roles, and practice skills. The second and third dimension are beyond the scope of this article and here we focus on one part of the first dimension, the speech concept of reflexivity. We briefly discuss below the five features of the first dimension, to contextualise how reflexivity was part of the of Gun Control overall research and especially of the first dimension.

The first dimension, theories of teenage mother, knowledge and Effects Essay, power, draws on assumptions about knowledge and the practitioner’s relationship to knowledge represented as practice decisions informed by the risk paradigm and social constructionism. This dimension begins from the position that the risk paradigm and social constructionism are represented in theory as mutually exclusive, each with particular defining features. The proposed alternative conceptual approach moves from this position of mutually exclusive perspectives to explore whether features of each perspective may be combined in different ways in greek influence practice as a way of expanding professional knowledge and practice repertoires for practitioners (D’Cruz et al., in press). Overall, the Effects of Gun Control five features of the first dimension of the conceptual framework related to how theories of knowledge and power may be represented in regard to views about ‘reality’, ‘truth’ and ‘knowledge’ and expertise and per meaning, authority. For example, whether knowledge is objective and absolute (real) or an outcome of alternative, contestable meanings (relative); and the relationship of knowledge to the speaker/author/knower (privilege/positioning). Instrumental rationality and reflexivity were the first feature of this dimension and, as explained below, reflexivity seemed to have the greatest resonance for the practitioners in terms of how they could relate it to their practice. To explore how practitioners might be able to expand their practice repertoires through the possibility of juxtaposing concepts like reflexivity and instrumental rationality that are regarded as polarised and mutually exclusive, a research project, ‘Developing a practice-generated approach to policy implementation’, was developed (D’Cruz et al., in press). The aim was to Effects of Gun develop an alternative approach for child protection practice that would account for in pro per meaning, ethical, legal and bureaucratic demands while providing “child centred, family focused” services (e.g.

Ferguson, 1997) beyond surveillance and monitoring that Donzelot (1980) refers to as “policing families”. Hence the research was designed to explore the assumptions about knowledge and power underlying the main contemporary theoretical approaches to child protection, namely, risk assessment and social constructionism, that as abstract theories are considered as “incommensurable” or mutually exclusive, yet might be combined in practice through the exercise of discretion. In this article, we focus specifically on how practitioners who were research participants were engaged in regard to the concept of reflexivity as either an alternative to or complement for instrumental rationality that was/is the Control Essay norm in their organisational contexts. Generally, “incommensurability” is taken to greek culture the development of roman civilization mean that different paradigms cannot be compared as each has self-contained criteria that include what is relevant to the paradigm and simultaneously demarcates what is not (Feyerabend, 1975; Lee, 1994; Jacobs, 2002a; 2002b). Within this definition, the risk paradigm and social constructionism cannot be compared as they are considered to be incommensurable, as each is a self-contained perspective. Essay! We believe they can be compared on the grounds that they offer different perspectives of greek culture the development of roman civilization, social reality and professional practice.

From a post-modernist perspective that claims that one can “juxtapose seeming incommensurables” (Marcus, 1994, p. 566) we have taken an approach that does not claim to combine entire self-contained paradigms. Of Gun! Instead, we have identified a few key features of each paradigm as being important for professional discretion and ethical practice and have incorporated these into our overall conceptual framework. This approach also draws from malaysian culture Feyerabend’s (1975) conceptualisation of the need for “pluralism” of apparently conflicting theoretical perspectives so that theories can better explain/understand “realities” that may not be adequately addressed through single approaches . Reflexivity (and its conceptual opposite, instrumental rationality) are two such concepts that are identified here as representing how professionals are expected to work from Effects different paradigms or perspectives (in our research, social constructionism and the risk paradigm, respectively). We have aimed to explore whether reflexivity and instrumental rationality could be considered as two ‘ends’ of a continuum of possibilities that may generate countless variations to improve practice options. The idea of a conceptual continuum from a professional practice perspective, is similar to the “grey areas” of practice that are well known to practitioners, as the vast majority of cases do not fit neatly within prescribed official categories and related theories (Parton, 1991). How do practitioners understand the concept of reflexivity and its relationship to instrumental rationality in their practice? Research Participants and Procedures. The research was conducted in 2002 and 2003. Culture And Customs! There were ten participants in the first cohort, and seven in the second. The first group of participants involved senior practitioners and the second group involved relatively more recent graduates (primarily social workers).

The participants were employed at child welfare/child protection organisations in Victoria, Australia, namely, the Department of Human Services (Barwon South-Western Region), Glastonbury Child and Family Services, and MacKillop Family Services. Participants from each organisation were recruited by invitation using a plain language statement and participation required written consent. The research was facilitated by the first author who was also an active participant in the research process. In 2002, the second author was a senior child protection practitioner who participated in the research as a key informant and as research assistant. Essay! In 2003, the second author continued to participate as a key informant and the third author, who was a Bachelor of Social Work (Honours) student, was employed as a research assistant.

The particular challenges and opportunities of conducting collaborative research across a range of agencies are discussed more fully in D’Cruz Gillingham (2005), as are the ethical and practical dilemmas of short speech about friendship, (and the particular insights gained from) the multiple roles occupied by the researchers. Key concerns in this process were how participants perceived the multiple roles of the researchers and how they themselves could step aside from their normal (and potentially oppositional purchaser/provider) roles. In order to address these concerns, rules about the confidentiality of Effects Control Essay, comments made and written were clarified at the beginning and during the workshops. The participants were also drawn from an area where practitioners move from one employer to another and so have to accommodate the changing roles of colleagues. Comments from the participants indicated that they welcomed the culture and customs opportunity to debate issues with each other in the workshop that they would not be able to discuss in their normal occupational roles. Participants in both cohorts attended five focus groups that covered the three dimensions of the of Gun alternative approach. These were referred to as “workshops” in greek the development of roman order to reflect the collaborative and dialogic nature of the research and Essay, the participation, rather than just facilitation, by the researchers in the sessions. The first workshop (half-day) introduced the research and explored participants’ perceptions of the Cancer context in which they worked, and Effects of Gun Control Essay, the extent of discretion and professional power they believed they had (and sought to exercise) in their organisations and in relation to clients. These perceptions were important as they suggested how each practitioner/participant might engage with abstract concepts to be addressed in the research, as opposed to prescribed procedures, in their work environment. Furthermore, perceptions about the extent of their discretion in their employing organisations might also influence how participants perceived the value of the research itself for its contributions to their practice.

At the second workshop (full day), reflexivity (and instrumental rationality) were explored as part of the Essay first dimension of the conceptual framework, theories of knowledge and power. Effects Of Gun Essay! The third and fourth workshops (full days) the remaining dimensions of the alternative approach, namely, theories, professional roles and practice skills. At the end of the fourth workshop, participants were asked to apply any aspects of the approach to their practice and in pro per meaning, document it along with critical comments (Stringer, 1996; Reason Bradbury, 2001). Participants were alerted to the likelihood that they would not be able to apply the entire conceptual approach in every case; nor were they expected to. This advice was given because the facilitator recognised from her own practice experience that specific cases do not fit tidily within the generalities of formal theory hence the tensions between ‘theory’ and ‘practice’ (Fook, 1996; 1999; Camilleri, 1996; 1999). At the fifth and final workshop (half-day) participants discussed their examples of how they applied the approach to their practice and of Gun, offered critical feedback.

Each workshop discussion relied on plain language definitions and semi-structured questions that had been mailed to participants prior to the workshop to facilitate their engagement with particular dimensions of the alternative approach. The conceptual features of culture influence the development of roman, each dimension and their plain language definitions were refined in discussion between the Principal Researcher (also first author) and the second author who, at the initiation of the research, was employed as a senior child protection practitioner in a large statutory organisation. The definitions, questions and related readings were mailed to participants before each workshop to allow them time to consider and critically engage with the materials. Figure 1 sets out the plain language definitions and explanations of “instrumental rationality” and “reflexivity” that were mailed to participants prior to their attendance at workshop two. Reflexivity (Hassard, 1993; Taylor White, 2000): An important practice skill and central to working ethically in uncertain contexts and unpredictable situations as opposed to instrumental accountability (following rules and of Gun Control Essay, procedures). Critical self-awareness by the practitioner, in how he or she understands and engages with social problems. Realisation that our assumptions about social problems and the people who experience these problems have ethical and and customs, practical consequences. Questioning of personal practice, knowledge and assumptions. The following questions were provided to facilitate practitioners’ engagement with questioning their practice assumptions and Effects of Gun Essay, their interpretation of the concept of reflexivity: How do I know what I think I know about this person and their problem?

What has my experience of this immediate situation and the person(s) involved in teenage mother it contributed to my conclusions for my practice? Is there at least one other way of understanding this situation and the people involved? Is there any possibility that this situation or aspects of it can be seen as the normal consequences of everyday life and/or broader structural disadvantage? How can I use my professional knowledge and associated power as productively as possible? Figure 1: Plain language definitions and critical questions about “reflexivity” and “instrumental accountability” During the Control Essay workshops, data were generated by culture engaging the participants in discussion about the questions (in Figure 1). They were also given time to provide written responses to material provided in Effects of Gun Control Essay the workshops, which asked them to consider how they might incorporate the proposed concepts into their practice. In 2002, the speech about friendship workshop discussions were tape-recorded and Effects of Gun Control Essay, transcribed but this proved to be less than satisfactory. A particular problem was that participants, in the heat of the debate, tended to speak over each other (and at the same time), making the greek influence transcription fragmented and of Gun, difficult to follow. Consequently this was not repeated in 2003, but extensive notes of the discussion were taken by the research assistant and research facilitator (first author). During the workshops in both 2002 and 2003, an electronic whiteboard was used to capture salient points during the discussions with the participants at the workshops and per meaning, these were printed off.

The use of the whiteboard also allowed participants and researchers the opportunity to clarify the points being made. Participants were encouraged to comment on whether the researcher using the whiteboard had adequately captured their meaning, This approach to data recording, known as “member checking” (Rubin Babbie, 2005) was concerned with the point that “(t)he central meanings attached to objects or relations should reflect the beliefs that the Control Essay insiders hold about these” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38) and that “(v)alidity here begins with the convergence of the researcher and the subject’s ideas about the subject’s view of the world” (Kellehear, 1993, p. 38). The participants’ responses were analysed in accordance with principles drawn from qualitative research, whereby the researcher aims to identify patterns and contradictions in the data and interpret subjective meanings generated by the participants (Everitt, Hardiker, Littlewood Mullender, 1992). “Open coding” (Strauss Corbin, 1990) was used to start analyzing the data and involved reading through the range of tissue function, documents generated by Effects of Gun Control Essay participants through their written responses and the discussions. Themes in relation to how participants defined reflexivity in Essay relation to their practice were then identified, as they emerged from the data (Strauss Corbin, 1990), and categorised according to the interpretations of the Essay researchers. Throughout this process, themes were expanded, developed and changed through the identification of direct quotes from participants and repeated reading of the data. This process continued until no new themes emerged. The particular challenges of conducting collaborative research are discussed more fully elsewhere (see D’Cruz and Gillingham, 2005), as are the limitations of the research design, both practically and theoretically (see D’Cruz et al., in press). Particular limitations can be summarised as follows. The number of participants was small and we acknowledge that a larger number of participants would have strengthened any claims made. We also relied on the accounts of the participants of how they tried to integrate the alternative concepts in their practice rather than observe them directly. We also acknowledge that the findings of the research are closely linked to Cancer the context in which it was conducted, a context which changes (and has changed since the research was conducted) continually and sometimes swiftly.

The concept of reflexivity as interpreted by practitioners/participants. Of all the concepts explored in this part of the research, reflexivity seemed to of Gun have greatest resonance for greek influence civilization, participants, as it seemed to fundamentally relate to knowledge, theory and practice and the connections between these ideas. In particular, it also resonated with their recognition of the discretion that they have in their practice, however limited this may be by organisational settings. (The other concepts that had greatest resonance for the participants seemed to relate more specifically to the other two dimensions that have not been addressed in this article, namely, professional roles and practice skills.) In fact, the Effects Essay richness of the data related to reflexivity enabled us to develop a detailed analysis (D’Cruz et al., 2004), which we now present below. Firstly we present the different meanings of reflexivity that participants generated and secondly their engagement with the notion of power/knowledge as it relates to the definition of reflexivity that they were given. We were able to identify six themes that represented the participants’ conceptualisations of teenage mother, reflexivity in relation to their practice: as self-reflection, distinct from reflection.

as a way to combine objectivity and Effects, subjectivity. as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment. reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. as a process of critical reflection on policy (D’Cruz et al., 2004) These six themes are considered in more detail below. While we acknowledge that there are considerable overlaps between some of the themes, we have separated them out in order to convey the subtleties and range of meaning in the responses. Due to the way that the responses were recorded during group discussions, we were not able to identify participants individually, but have been able to identify and include which of the two cohorts they belonged to (2002 or 2003).

This identifying information is significant in that the two cohorts (as explained above in the section “Research Participants and Procedures”) differed in terms of professional roles and experience. The 2002 cohort were mainly team leaders and supervisors, while those involved in 2003 were all relatively recently qualified practitioners. Practitioners’ Meanings of Reflexivity. as self-reflection, distinct from reflection. Some of the participants defined reflexivity as the use of intuition or tacit knowledge (Polyani 1967) to make sense of malaysian and customs, a situation and Effects Control Essay, also as a way of Cancer and Epigenetics Essay, combining the use of the intellect and the emotions to do so. Control! The inclusion of self (including emotional responses) in short speech about the critical approach to knowledge creation are conveyed by the following quotes: reflection is kinda looking out and looking at everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in that . (emphasis added) (2002) Need to be aware of internal (emotional responses and “gut feelings”) and external (things go on around us) factors. Essay! . . (2003) (2) as a way to in pro combine objectivity and subjectivity.

The participants engaged with the idea of a continuum between instrumental rationality and reflexivity as a way of combining objectivity and subjectivity, of moving between the two and legitimating both approaches to knowledge creation in practice, as demonstrated by the following quotes: I sort of saw it as combining objectivity and subjectivity. . . Effects! . So you can be both, objective and subjective in the same context. . . (2002) [At the instrumental accountability end of the continuum] the assumption can only be. And Epigenetics! . . [that] if you’re objective then you can’t be subjective. . . whereas it’s actually contextually okay to Effects Essay be both. And it’s realistic to be both. (2002) reflection is kinda looking out and looking at everything whereas reflexivity is doing that but including yourself in that (2002) These interpretations of the influence the development of roman concept of reflexivity, in relation to instrumental accountability resonate with one of the original aims of this research, which was to investigate whether and how two seemingly polarized approaches to social work practice in child protection can be combined. Though we do not have these participants’ definitions of objectivity and subjectivity, it appears from the context of the discussion that they identifying the ‘instrumental rationality’ end of the continuum with ‘objectivity’ and the ‘reflexivity’ end with ‘subjectivity’. Of Gun Control Essay! It appears that, for them, the concept of reflexivity offered the opportunity to practice in two ways at the same time. Another participant, however, saw reflexivity as a way of acknowledging his/her personal emotional response and tissue function, then distancing him/herself from this response in order to increase his/her objectivity: This helps me make sense of my responses to what I am being told. Of Gun Control Essay! It helps me distance myself from and Epigenetics my emotional responses to Effects Control the person who is speaking to tissue function me. . . Effects Of Gun! . If I figure out that my emotional response is friendship, mirroring theirs, or that I am being convinced by their presentation rather than anything else, then I change my emotional response, or put it aside, to become more objective. Effects Control Essay! (2003) (3) as a critical appraisal of action and knowledge creation, in the moment.

For some participants reflexivity allowed questioning of what is a ‘fact’ and a broadening of what might be considered pertinent to Cancer and Epigenetics Essay an assessment: Reflexivity for me means being able to more broadly consider the client’s experience of the world rather than through the narrow confines of accountability through procedures (sic) facts and bottom lines. Of Gun Control! (2003) One participant gave the culture example of when the application of reflexivity allowed for alternative explanations for a mother’s behaviour in a domestic violence situation. Although (I was) very much aware of theory re DV and cycle of violence, the information, context and presentation of mother were quite confronting. Rationalizing in my own head drawing on the context of her life/environment, my knowledge of theory and past experience of DV situations to assist with making sense and Effects, understand the mother’s thought processes. Epithelial Tissue! . Control! . (2003) This application of the concept led to a reassessment of the situation rather than the and Epigenetics mother’s behaviour being considered as just a breach of procedures. This questioning also extended to how formal theories and knowledge are applied in practice. The example given here concerned theories about the cause and effects of domestic violence.

The questioning of Effects Control, ‘fact’, knowledge and theory is exemplified by the following: valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of conducting reflexivity. . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. Culture! . Control Essay! . you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. The stopping and thinking about why you did, and where you did and what you did. Malaysian And Customs! And that navel gazing I guess is the notion. (2002) The reference to ‘navel gazing’ in the above quote could have quite negative connotations in of Gun Control that it could be read that applying the concept of reflexivity could lead to endless, or at least time-consuming, introspection and a lack of action. (4) reflexivity as a tool for practice/an introspective process. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a practice tool that could be used to change and enhance practice. Teenage Mother! As in version three, reflexivity was conceptualized as an Effects of Gun, introspective process, something that a practitioner can engage with on their own:

It’s about change, it’s about changing your own practice in some subtle way or changing something outside the practice which is why we are actually talking to someone. . that the internal conversation goes on . . (emphasis added) (2002) valuing and holding fairly highly, the practice of conducting reflexivity. . . bring that sort of ‘third eye’ stuff. . . you keep making explicit the fact that that’s what you’re doing. The stopping and thinking about speech friendship, why you did, and where you did and what you did. And that navel gazing I guess is the notion . . Control! . Cancer And Epigenetics! (emphasis added) (2002) Reflexivity is an Effects Control, ongoing ‘live’ process going on internally as the outside world impacts on me. Tissue Function! (2003) (5) reflexivity as a learning tool/critical practice approach. Reflexivity was conceptualized as a learning tool, as a process for creating rules to of Gun Essay guide practice and enhance ‘practice wisdom’. Participants alluded to the idea that reflexivity can be used to sort out ‘what works’ in a particular situation, without having to ‘reinvent the wheel’. This is encapsulated in the following quote: . . . reflexivity creates a helpful rule in the context, then you might have a . . . Speech About Friendship! point here and the next time you confront a similar situation, you might think, I can try and use that knowledge or rule that I created in that last case, let’s try it and Control, if it works you do it and your reflexivity says if it isn’t working what can you do next. . . (2002) This quote also refers to the use of reflexivity as a continual and critical process of epithelial tissue function, questioning how knowledge to guide practice is created. However, reflexivity as a critical approach and as a learning tool was not considered to be easy and generated a level of discomfort: But even if you don’t say anything about Effects of Gun, it, you’re just doing the reflecting on yourself, it kind of, it’s not a comfortable feeling for people. (2002)

The process of practising reflexivity and Essay, moving to that end of the continuum was considered as also being ‘scary’, while the instrumentalist end of the continuum was associated with safety: I mean it is that balance between it being scary and discomfort and I mean, I think there is probably a lot of Effects of Gun Essay, staff that would sort of ‘just tell me what to do, how to teenage mother do, what is the rule here, what is Effects of Gun, (sic) the rules to follow, how do I interpret this, whatever else’ and if you go back to them and take them through a different process, but I think it also has, I suppose the other side to that is that it is Essay, also rewarding in Effects of Gun Control the long term. (2002) The extent of challenge in practising reflexively might also be linked to levels of professional experience and expertise: I think it also has to do with the individuals, where they are at. . . personal development and professional development. (2002) I think it’s a level of confidence and. . . for dealing with some of their own issues that if they sort of reflected on themselves. . Teenage Mother! . (2002) Despite the of Gun Essay challenges that reflexivity might pose, it was also considered to be rewarding in the long term: So the other side of this is the and Epigenetics Essay rewarding, for some people it is a difficult process to go through with that, yeah, the mastery that goes with that. (2002) (6) as a process of critical reflection on policy.

Some participants also interpreted the concept of reflexivity as critical reflection on the policies set by their agencies that inform and guide their practice: . . . you look at policy, you build in reflexivity in individual practice relative to Effects of Gun Control clients, relative to program, relative to annual reviews. It’s at all those different levels. (2002) I guess I don’t see policies or whatever as set in greek culture influence the development of roman civilization concrete. I think you still need to Effects Essay keep reflecting on short speech about friendship them and seeing if they are still useful because I guess I have seen policies that are being useful to support workers in their practice and if they are not, well then you need to be relooking at them. (2002) Again, as this quote shows, reflexivity was used as a critical approach to practice, offering a process of engagement with organisational instrumental rationality (rules and procedures) that shapes and guides practice. Participants also described adopting a reflexive approach to practice as rewarding and as promoting growth and Effects of Gun Control Essay, trust in relations with clients. But there remained the question of whether their employing organisations were supportive of such an approach.

For example, in that the participants questioned whether organisational culture provided sufficient safety and permission for them to adopt a reflexive stance in relation to their practice: It is short about, about a culture as well isn’t it, it is the Effects of Gun Control culture that allows that. (2002) Yeah, I think it is back to short the ideal world in a way and it is a thing about of Gun Control Essay, how do you fit in short organisational culture that allows. . . a relationship to of Gun Essay happen rather than the task centred stuff that says we just want another chapter and culture and customs, verse and we don’t really care what your interpretation of Effects of Gun Control Essay, that is. About! (2002) In the Control Essay next section, we focus on how the participants engaged with the concept of power, as it relates to their roles and the process of knowledge generation. Reflexivity as Knowledge/Power in Practice.

We have acknowledged previously (D’Cruz et al., 2007) that the concept of reflexivity has been offered as a constructive (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) and critical (Fook, 1996; 1999; Taylor White, 2000) approach to social work practice, particularly recognizing the relations of power in the generation of situated professional knowledge. Consequently an important dimension of Cancer, how the participants in Effects of Gun this research engaged with the concept of Cancer, reflexivity was how they conceptualized and acknowledged the Effects Control operation of tissue, power in their practice. In engaging with the formal definition of reflexivity as an integral relationship between knowledge and power, participants identified three different forms that power could take in their practice which we have categorised as: (1) constructive power, (2) coercive power, and (3) institutional power. The participants acknowledged that power enabled them to: empathize where the client is at [knowledge/assessment] should not merely be a conflict of views (2003) Power was also considered as constructive in Effects of Gun relation to dealing with the tissue seemingly inevitable conflicts that arise in work with children and families: Practice starts off with [the] assumption of a power struggle. The first encounter destabilises power from parents and potentially sets up the groundwork for Effects Control, ‘battle’.

Therefore it is important to start with the parents how can we empower you to fulfil the role of parenting? (2002) The giving of knowledge or information was also seen as a way of empowering clients (parents) and reducing what was considered to be a power imbalance between professionals and families: Just an malaysian, equalizing kind of thing, using your own knowledge in a constructive way to help people understand . . . (2002) It is also worth noting that participants considered the parents as clients rather than their children when they were asked to reflect on the operation of power in Effects of Gun Control practice. The participants acknowledged the operation of power, in relation to the generation of teenage mother, knowledge, in the relations between themselves, their supervisors (or supervisees) and clients. The following quote illustrates how power was considered to be operating in a top down (and unidirectional) manner. But apparently what’s sitting there is a power dimension about who’s asking the question to reflect anyway.

So if you’re asking, if the supervisor asked the Effects Control Essay question, the fact that they asked the question is a power differential. That fact that we go out to a client family. . . Teenage Mother! did you feed your kids last night is a very different question if I ask the question or your mother did or the neighbour, I mean who asks the questions sets up. . . (2002) Statutory power was also considered as a last resort: at some point power needs to be used there are things we can do on the way to avoid reaching this point (2003) The operation of power as oppressive and as located in the rules and of Gun Essay, procedures of employing organisations which produce rigid solutions to problems was also identified by the participants, as: a fixation on appropriate course of action for short friendship, clients [as defined by the organisation] often results in neglecting clients’ real needs. (2002) In summary, power was considered by of Gun the participants to be operating in short about friendship both constructive and oppressive ways in their practice. It was acknowledged as operating in relations between supervisors and practitioners and clients, predominantly in a “top down” manner. Power was also associated with statutory duties. With reference to Effects of Gun the process of knowledge creation, at least one of the participants acknowledged the importance of the hierarchical status of the person asking the in pro questions, again with power operating in a “top down” manner. Knowledge/power was also alluded to by one participant in relation to the possibility of knowledge sharing with clients as an Effects Essay, empowering process. However, the participants engaged with a structural definition of power rather than a post-modern definition of power as relational espoused by reflexivity.

Participants’ interpretations and the literature. This section will discuss how the findings of this research extend the current literature about reflexivity as a concept that can be applied to social work practice. In order to consider the creative and varying ways that the teenage mother participants in this research related the concept to their practice, we draw on our critical review of the literature on reflexivity as a concept (D’Cruz et al., 2007) to Effects Control Essay provide an analytical framework to locate these emergent meanings. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), we identified three variations in the meaning of reflexivity: as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context, as a critical approach that questions how knowledge is generated and as an greek culture of roman, approach to practice that is concerned with how emotion is of Gun Control Essay, implicated in social work practice. In this section we relate the findings of the research to these three variations. We aim to understand the practitioner/participants’ interpretations within these broader conceptual frameworks in order to Cancer and Epigenetics Essay bring together “formal theory” (expressed in academic literature) and Effects of Gun Control Essay, “informal theory” (as emergent and tissue function, grounded in the experience of practitioners) (Fook, 1999; Camilleri, 1999). The First Variation: Individual’s choices in context. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the first conceptual variation of reflexivity is Effects of Gun Control Essay, regarded as an individual’s considered response to an immediate context and is concerned with the ability of service users to friendship process information and of Gun, create knowledge to guide life choices (Roseneil Seymour, 1999; Kondrat, 1999; Elliott, 2001; Ferguson, 2003, 2004).

This emphasis on and Epigenetics Essay individual choice in context is apparent in the ways that some participants interpreted reflexivity for their practice. They saw it as a means (or skill) for making sense of the Effects of Gun Essay situations they faced in practice and deciding on action that they could then take. How Did Greek The Development Civilization! However, their responses did not suggest that they considered reflexivity to Effects of Gun Essay be a skill that can be taught to function clients to of Gun Control Essay assist them to make sense of short about friendship, their worlds and to take action to further their own interests (Ferguson, 2004). Rather, it was considered as a practice tool to Effects Control aid their practice and develop professional expertise. The Second Variation: Self Critical Professional Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the second conceptual variation of reflexivity is defined as a social worker’s self critical approach that questions how knowledge about clients is epithelial tissue function, generated and, further, how relations of power operate in this process (White Stancombe, 2003; Taylor White, 2000; Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; Sheppard, Newstead, Caccavo Ryan, 2000).

This variation in the literature was apparent in the ways that the participants defined reflexivity as a critical approach to their practice, the Effects Control Essay knowledge generated in practice and the rules and policies that guide practice. As in the conceptual variation in how did greek culture influence the development the literature, power was considered as part of the definition of reflexivity, particularly by one participant, in relation to the identity of the knower. The Third Variation: Emotion, Cognition and Social Work Practice. In our critical literature review (D’Cruz et al., 2007), the Effects of Gun Essay third conceptual variation of reflexivity is concerned with how emotion is teenage mother, implicated in social work practice (Kondrat, 1999; Mills Kleinman, 1988; Miehls Moffat, 2000; Ruch, 2002). Essay! The meanings of reflexivity generated by participants in our research also identified emotions as being an important part of the process of knowledge creation. Participants spoke of their emotional responses when they attempted to apply a critical approach to the generation of knowledge to guide their practice. In particular they identified the personal discomfort associated with questioning strictly prescribed rules, procedures and policies in organisational cultures that limit rather than promote practitioner discretion. Overall, there were elements of all three variations contained in the meanings that the participants gave to the concept of reflexivity in relation to their practice. Indeed, participants went beyond describing what practising reflexivity might mean to them. A key point that emerges from short speech this research with practitioners is the descriptions of how they might engage with the concept of reflexivity in a context that prescribes instrumental accountability. Control! They described the difficulties and discomfort in incorporating a reflexive approach to practice and the easier option of resorting to the relative safety of following rules and procedures.

A certain amount of self-confidence is required to engage in epithelial tissue critical or reflexive approaches to Effects of Gun practice, with confidence associated with practice experience and levels of expertise. So, while reflexivity may offer a way of developing and increasing expertise, it also requires a certain level of expertise to begin with. It is worth noting that it was the how did influence of roman civilization 2002 group of Effects of Gun Essay, participants, the more senior practitioners, team leaders and managers who reflected on this more than the less experienced 2003 group. This also mirrors the Essay conceptualisation of professional expertise and Effects, its development by Fook, Ryan and Hawkins (2000), who argue that whereas “novices” in professional practice tend to how did greek of roman civilization follow rules, “experts engage with theory in a critically self-reflective process” (p. 189). This particular point offers an important insight that might inform the introduction of alternative practice approaches to enhance practice in child protection. The participants did not engage quite so fully with the concept of power as it relates to Effects Control knowledge creation in the definition of reflexivity provided to them. While reflexivity was seen as important in challenging how knowledge was created, the role that power has in the process of Cancer and Epigenetics, knowledge creation, particularly the power that they, as child and Essay, family welfare professionals have, was not critically engaged with (except in terms of ‘knowledge sharing’). We conceptualized their versions of power as constructive, coercive and institutional and acknowledged more as an per meaning, entity or possession than a process that operates in all interactions, namely, a structural version of power. This conceptualisation of of Gun Essay, power may be associated with the location of the practitioners in human service organisations which are structured as bureaucracies in which ‘legal authority’ is the of roman civilization most evident form of power, and which, in Foucauldian terms establishes a pervasive system of governmentality through hierarchical surveillance (Foucault, 1980). Consequently, participants may have engaged more with a process of ‘reflection’ rather than ‘reflexivity’ in that they did not fully acknowledge the knowledge/power dimension of reflexivity and their own positioned subjectivities in the process.

We have presented an account of how practitioners might enhance their practice by engaging with a theoretical construct in ‘real world’ situations rather than hypothetical situations, which offers some insight into the “opportunities” and “dangers” (Ferguson, 1997) of adopting alternative, critical practice approaches. We have shown that it is possible for practitioners to combine an alternative practice approach based in the social constructionist critique of Effects of Gun Control, current child protection practice with the “risk paradigm” and that the two approaches are not necessarily “incommensurable” (Marcus, 1994). The consequence for practice is that it offers hope that alternative “constructive” approaches (Parton O’Byrne, 2000a; 2000b) to child protection practice that aim to move beyond the “policing” (Donzelot, 1980) and “surveillance” (Parton, 1991) of families can be integrated into child protection practice and epithelial tissue function, that their development should continue. Effects! The possibility that such alternative approaches might be well received by short speech friendship practitioners has also emerged from this research, as demonstrated by the enthusiasm with which the participants in this research engaged with the concept of reflexivity. This article has discussed how the concept of Effects of Gun Control, reflexivity was applied by practitioners in the field of teenage mother, child and family welfare to expand their current practice repertoires. The research has shown how individual practitioners interpret concepts and create practical meanings appropriate to their practice contexts in a range of imaginative ways that combine with current approaches. It has demonstrated how one concept, reflexivity, generated from an alternative approach to practice based in Effects of Gun social constructionism, can be used to short speech expand practice options, rather than just offer critique. Consequently this research supports the further development of alternative approaches to practice in child protection that extend beyond forensic approaches that focus on the identification and management of “risk”. Ai, A. L. (2002). Integrating spirituality into professional education: A challenging but feasible task. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 22(1-2), 103-127.

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Rubin, A., Babbie, E. R. (2005). Culture! Research methods for social work, 5th ed.. Pacific Grove: Thompson Learning. Ruch, G. (2002). Essay! From triangle to spiral: Reflective practice in social work education, practice and research. Social Work Education, 21(2), 199216.

Sanders, B. Becker-Lausen, E. Short! (1995). The measurement of psychological maltreatment: Early data on the child abuse and trauma scale. Of Gun Control! Child Abuse and Neglect, 19(3), 315-324. Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action.

New York: Basic Books. Schön, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Towards a new design for teaching and learning in how did greek culture the development of roman the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Scott, D. Swain, S. (2002). Confronting cruelty: Historical perspectives on child protection in Australia. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press. Shaw, I. (2004).

Practitioner Research: Evidence or Critique? Presentations in Control Bendigo and Melbourne, Australia, in speech February 2004. Sheppard, M., Newstead, S., Caccavo, A., Ryan, K. (2000). Reflexivity and the development of process knowledge in social work: A classification and empirical study. British Journal of Social Work, 30, 465-488. Stanley, L. Effects Of Gun Essay! Wise, S. (1993).

Breaking out teenage mother, again: Feminist ontology and epistemology, 2nd ed.. Control! London: Routledge. Stringer, E. (1996). Action research: A handbook for practitioners. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Strauss, A. Teenage Mother! Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques.

Newbury Park: Sage. Taylor, C. White, S. Effects Of Gun Essay! (2000). Practising reflexivity in health and how did culture the development of roman civilization, welfare: Making knowledge. Of Gun Essay! Buckingham: Open University Press. Thorpe, D. (1994). About Friendship! Evaluating child protection. Buckingham: Open University Press. Turnell, A. Edwards, S. (1999). Signs of safety: A solution and Effects of Gun, safety oriented approach to child protection.

New York: Norton. Walton, M. Short Friendship! (1993). Regulation in child protection policy failure?. British Journal of Social Work, 23, 139-156. Weber, M. (1993). Bureaucracy.

In H. Of Gun Control! H. Gerth C. Wright Mills (Eds.) New edition from Max Weber: Essays in sociology. New York: Oxford University Press. Weinstein, D. Weinstein, M.A. (1992). The postmodern discourse of metatheory. In G. Ritzer (Ed.), Metatheorizing, pp. 135-150. Epithelial Function! London: Sage.

White, S. Stancombe, J. (2003). Clinical judgement in of Gun Essay the health and function, welfare professions. Maidenhead and Philadelphia: Open University Press.

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A Doll#8217;s House by Henrik Ibsen Essay. A Doll#8217;s House is the most famous work of Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. It has been staged throughout the world since way back until now, one and a half century later. Of Gun Essay? However, few plays have had a similar impact globally on social norms and conditions (UNESCO, 2008). Ibsen introduces a play that is adequate in all aspects, much as it is intriguing in his time.

It is a play of depth, gravity, and social relevance that it extends it#8217;s importance and application even in the present society. In Pro Per Meaning? This play tackles the life of middle class people in Ibsen#8217;s time and how their lives are heavily affected when they encounter various crises. However, much as it is about families, it highlights the struggles of women and their sacrifices in creating harmony and stability in of Gun Essay, the home at the expense of their own personal, physical, and emotional well-being. A Doll#8217;s House criticises the traditional roles of men and women in 19th-century marriage (Shapiro, 99). During this era, this was considered quite scandalous in the European countries because of the great value that they put on marriage. This play was met with a lot of criticisms but was eventually accepted as it simulated real-life occurrences that are experienced by a lot of how did culture influence civilization women. The theme dwells highly on Control, the sacrificial role of women in the different classes of tissue society.

Since a number of the characters are women with their own stories to tell, the play was at one point or another considered as a feminist play. The theme was highlighted in the play with the introduction of these various women and their circumstances. For instance, the nanny in the play had her own share of sacrifice when she has to leave her own household to be a caretaker in the house of Nora and Torvald. This is an of Gun act of love by a mother to provide better means for her own child. Another character who has impacted the play was Mrs. Linde who had to and customs, give up Krogstad despite her love for Effects of Gun Essay him.

This was sacrificial of her happiness because she opted on marrying a richer man as society may have forced her to do. The most influential character and protagonist in the story is Nora, who in epithelial, her lifetime, experieneced a lot of hardships and sacrifices in Effects Essay, pleasing her husband as well as her father. It was a series of per meaning hardships for her because of the fact that society dictated Torvald to be the dominant partner and she has to be a slave to his every whim. She was like a puppet on strings that should never fail to of Gun Control, beguile, charm and malaysian culture and customs entertain her husband as well as be like a trophy for of Gun Control him. She even has to be deathly afraid of the possibility that he may know of the loan despite the fact that it was for his sake. Teenage Mother? To quote Nora, “I have been performing tricks for you, Torvald. That’s how I’ve survived. You wanted it like that. You and Effects Essay Papa have done me a great wrong.

It’s because of greek influence civilization you I’ve made nothing of my life. ” This is somehow a summary of how she was made to feel like a childish, innocent woman, when in fact, she is just as intelligent and capable as they thought she was. The moods of the play ranged from light to heavy as different secrets and stories unfold. This moods are highlighted by focusing on Effects Control Essay, different scenes that contribute to per meaning, the understanding of the story. For example, the lighter moods such as Torvald calling Nora using affectionate names highlights the theme in a way that it expresses Nora#8217;s dependence on Torvald as well as her helplessness. Of Gun Control? Another notable aspect in the stage direction of the play is the use of the scene of the porter in the opening and Nora#8217;s and Torvald#8217;s discussion of money. This also puts the spotlight on money being one of the forces that creates the conflict in the play. As the scenes progress, some aspects of the play contribute to the progression of the theme like the and Epigenetics Essay scene where Nora still practiced her routine despite her nervousness on the impending confrontation about the loan. This simply shows how she is experiencing extreme anxiety but still refuses to give in to the fear and prefer to still please her husband. This also highlights the title as it is symbolic of the characteristics of dolls. It reiterates the idea that as a doll, Nora should only work on being pleasing to Effects of Gun Essay, her husband and never grow or improve.

Another inclusion, such as Nora eating maccaroons even if Torvald forbids it, is quite satirical but is also symbolic of epithelial tissue function Nora#8217;s realization that she should take a stand sometimes. “As to symbolism, [Ibsen] says that life is full of it, and therefore his plays are full of it, though critics insist on Control, discovering all sorts of esoteric meanings in his work of which he is entirely innocent (Metheun, 1991. ” As to symbolisms, the use of the christmas tree in the play is very important as it embodies the character of Nora as a decorative element in the house. It reduces to her being just a plaything for Torvald and nothing more. Function? This parallel observation was even highlighted in the second act as the christmas tree was decsribed as being “dishevelled” which is also the Effects Control Essay start of Nora#8217;s questions and self instrospection. Another symbolic part of the play is the culture and customs use of the New Year. Being a festive event, it also is a symbol for of Gun Control Essay newer things and beginnings. For Torvald, it was supposed to be the start of his new post in his job and the end to the loan that Nora is culture paying. Effects Essay? However, the tissue function New Year proved to be something more than that.

It was a start of conflicts and of Gun Control Essay realizations that the married couple must face as they embark on a challenge on their marriage due to the radical decision that Nora has made. A Doll House is a play that is definitely noteworthy because of it#8217;s timelessness. The scocial relevance that it carries with it encompasses centuries as they are still obervable today. Society is definitely of patriarchal design and tends to be very critical of women and their actuations as well as their rights in the way of life. Malaysian Culture And Customs? In the past, this was very much evident in almost a worldwide scale. Today, it is slowly improving as women are now open to doing more things for Effects of Gun Essay their self-improvement as the previously did. This play is not only releveant as it showcases the life of women in the 19th century, but it also serves as an inspiration and a mark in the timeline of how women have gone from being dolls in teenage mother, the household to Effects, being independent and strong in real life. Works Cited Shapiro, Ann R. #8220;The slammed door that still reverberates#8221;. in Fisher, Jerilyn; Silber, Ellen S. Women in literature: reading through the lens of gender. Westport, CT: Greenwood. pp. 99–101. ISBN9780313313462. Short About Friendship? #8220;Henrik Ibsen: A Doll#8217;s House#8221;.

UNESCO Memory of the World Programme. Effects Of Gun? 16 May 2008. Speech Friendship? Retrieved 14 December 2009. Effects Control Essay? University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 31 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on A Doll#8217;s House by Henrik Ibsen. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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essay on eamwork Teamwork can have a profound effect on operational efficiency, productivity and quality. (Cohen et al, 1996) found that teams which facilitate high levels of employee involvement have a significant impact on efficiency and quality. Effects? If organisations are to speech about friendship, reap the benefits of teamwork, then they must create and manage them in the correct way. Effects? Research into effective team working has commonly followed the Essay, input-processes-output (I-P-O) model proposed by (McGrath, 1964). The idea is that inputs affect. a great idea because it allowed everyone to of Gun Control Essay, practice being in teenage mother, a leadership role. It also allowed everyone to of Gun, experience different styles of leadership.

We concluded that the issue was not who is in Essay, charge, but how the job gets done. I found that teamwork according to. Of course with the many advantages of teamwork, one can find several disadvantages of working in teams. A disadvantage of teamwork may be the fact that it is very time consuming and may take members a long time to of Gun, make decisions, as all viewpoints of team members need to be considered. It may take a while for team members to come to malaysian, an agreement of what should be done or where to Effects of Gun Essay, meet and when. Cancer And Epigenetics? To some members, meetings become a chore as suggested by Katzenbach and Effects Control Smith (1993). During the decision.

teams may need to assemble very quickly and and Epigenetics work extremely efficiently, such as in of Gun Control Essay, cases of trauma or resuscitation of a patient. Therefore, a greater effort needs to be implemented on teaching health care workers on and Epigenetics Essay improving teamwork in the work place. Of Gun Control Essay? Improved teamwork would not only speech improve patient care, but also make the work place more enjoyable. However, most importantly it will improve patient safety. Because of increasing costs of health care, hospitals are always seeking ways to make. Pros and Effects Cons of Teamwork Essay example. Liabilities of teamwork Although many people only think about the advantages of teamwork, this is not always the case. Several disadvantages come from team working.

The Concealment among Members. If members do not exchange data and ideas to Cancer and Epigenetics Essay, each other straightforwardly, teams will make decisions based on Effects partial data. This communication problem probably comes from three main reasons: • The first reason is the anxiety of destroying colleague emotion or scare of the contradiction. In addition, with the help of the employee education during my work, I can revise previous business knowledge from school to match current job. My previous business knowledge was from business courses in university; however, when I worked in an international business, I found out that many of international business knowledge were different between textbooks and real business world.

For example, in school, my professors will teach us many useful payment methods such as letter of credit (L/C) or. (criteria 3.3) Describe own role and responsibilities and those of malaysian and customs, others in the team. My role as a teaching assistant is to Control Essay, take on tasks such as preparing the classroom for lessons and clearing up afterwards, that allow the culture influence the development of roman, teacher to concentrate on teaching. To support pupils with particular individual needs, sometimes my role is to work one to one, while others work in small groups or work with one of these groups. The teacher is not able to give every pupil individual attention, assistants. Essay on Effect of Teamwork on Employee Performance. But on the other hand some managers believe that a teamwork activity within the organization is the key for success which enhances the Control, productivity and overall efficiency of the organization. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Proper management and concentration for and customs teamwork is of Gun Control, very much important for Cancer and Epigenetics the smooth functioning of organization. Previous studies on employee teamwork mainly emphasized the importance of Essay, teamwork within the organization (Barcus, 2007).

In Pakistan a very small number of researches. The idea of great managing is to approach employee engagement with sustainability in how did greek culture civilization, mind. My plan is to Effects, first: A. Identify. Identify the expectations. Managers who set clear expectations have employees who know exactly what is expected of them.

Making sure employees know what's expected of them is the foundation of management. Knowing what's expected is how did greek the development of roman, more than a job description. It's a detailed understanding of how what one person is supposed to Effects of Gun Control, do fits in with what everyone else is. Texas Roadhouse is not simply throwing money at its employees. And Epigenetics Essay? There is the creation of an entirely fresh, and caring sense of management that touches the hearts of everyone involved while stimulating new ideas and treating people as if they were actually human beings. Imagine that? Also a worthwhile mention here is Texas Roadhouse CEO Hart's attitude on giving employees' individually recognized pats on the back. For example instead of telling the group that everyone is wonderful, taking the time.

Teamwork, Collaboration, and Conflict Resolution Essay. It is not fair to say that two people of the opposite sex could not understand each other because nothing is absolute. Of Gun? When a woman wants to talk with a man about her problems and issues, she wants to share with him and in turn have him share with her. In Pro? “When a man hears a woman wanting to talk to him about her problems and issues he assumes that she is requesting his advice and would like a solution” (Tannen, 1991, p. 96). In fact, the woman is Control Essay, wanting to draw closer to the man open up and share. Essay on teenage mother Acme Minerals: Teamwork in Essay, Organization. Employees would not show up at the meeting, SPITS were rarely formed, and Cancer nobody wanted to participate in informal activities. Case study questions Q1: What types of teams described in the chapter are represented in this case? ? Formal team ? Horizontal team ? Special purpose team - SPITS ? Committee ? Self-directed team ? SPITS Q2: Why do you think the team project succeeded at Wichita but isn't working in Lubbock? ? Weak norms ? No team cohesiveness ? Unmotivated employees ? Employees. Successful Business Build Teamwork and Trust Essay.

management makes sure that each team member is on the same page. Of Gun Control Essay? Each individual who is apart of the team must have the same goals. Communication will be a major factor in how did greek culture, keeping team members focused on the same clear and precise goals. A big part of teamwork or any co-operation amongst co-workers is the Control Essay, capability to deal with people when addressing issues (Friedman, 2008). Greek Culture The Development Civilization? Trust between team members must be present so that each member feels comfortable in addressing issues they may have within the of Gun Control Essay, group. Teamwork, Collaboration, and Conflict Resolution Essay. My initial management style is to teenage mother, listen to Effects of Gun Control Essay, everyone’s opinions, weigh the information, and make a decision based on what I think the most favorable outcome is. Unfortunately, this allows further conflict. Collaboration takes time and calls for an impartial and unbiased manager (Simulation, n.d.). Collaboration results in and Epigenetics Essay, each team member’s belief of appreciation by others. Of Gun? Each team member appreciates the time managers spend listening to his and hers problems.

Initially I thought Emily the bright. Business Analysis: Teamwork at Fast Trac Inc. Essays. shaped their sales and selling knowhow around the customers that are not heritable, and therefore the industries needed to be dominated. The company representatives use trendy and teenage mother attractive techniques to extend penetration. This can be partially attributable to the access purchasers receive to the intensive retail network, wherever team members endorse merchandise in our portfolio to Yankee shoppers with cash to pay. One noticeable distinction is often the means a product performs in terms of of Gun Control Essay, sales. Cultural and Teamwork Map and Self Reflection Essay examples. In gropu, I only talked about assignment till the work is finished. Short Friendship? After submition of assignemnt I discussed my personal things and Control hobbies with them. My time orientation is ploy cronic.

I was working on the assignment as well as I was seeing the other's part also. More over, I was comparing my work with the wok done by other groups in the class. I kept on updating the speech friendship, absent team mebers about of Gun Control Essay activities (relevent to assignment) conducted in class through a social network simultaneously. Hence. How to Delegate and how did greek the development of roman civilization Create Teamwork in Business Essay example. Weigh your priorities. What deadlines are looming? What must be completed right away?

When first starting out, take it slowly and hand off low-priority tasks that someone else would be more qualified to Control, complete while you concentrate on the more important items. About? As you build trust, you can increase responsibilities, but it is better at first to not put too much pressure on performance and turnaround when both parties are just beginning to Effects Essay, learn how to work together most effectively. Draft a Good. Soc/110 Teamwork, Collaboration, and Conflict Resolution - Teams in greek culture civilization, the 21st Century. By doing so manager makes sure that the team members will work well together.

4) Diversity – Effective team is diverse in terms of personality, gender, age, caste, education, functional specialization, and experience, this ensures that the Control Essay, team is capable of completing the task effectively. Teenage Mother? 5) Size of Teams – Ideal team size of an effective group is of 8-10 people, and if the size is more the team is broken down into sub-teams. 6) Member Flexibility – Successful teams have members who are adaptable. Organizational Behavior and Teamwork Essay. One incentive could be for those who pass the exam on Essay their first try they would get a paid day off from work. Another incentive could be for those who take the material learned from the back to their workstations and can show documented improvement they would receive some type of cash incentive. In my organization the U.S.

Army, when we participate in various trainings or organization events we get incentives or rewards when we participate, understand the material, and pass the exam on their. If one or more team members take a win-lose approach to resolving conflict, the team as a whole will suffer, and the real result will be lose-lose. Before conflict can be managed, it must be understood. One approach to conflict analysis and resolution is known as the 4Rs Method (Engleberg et al 2003). First, the causes or reasons for in pro the conflict are explored and openly discussed. Secondly, team members look at their own reactions to the conflict. Of Gun? If those reactions are destructive, rather than. Communication Is the teenage mother, Key to Teamwork Essay. Each individual contributes a great deal of knowledge and diverse ideas to Effects of Gun Control Essay, the team. One of the greatest social benefits that team dynamics can offer is the making of Cancer, new friends. By doing so, they find ways to make their differences an asset rather than a liability.

Some of the educational benefits of team dynamics are learned by the interaction and problem solving that develops from projects. Individuals learn how to communicate effectively with in a group for the purpose of Effects of Gun Control Essay, obtaining. Teamwork and Motivation (Bus520) Essay. I don’t think I would be best suited to be the one in the position to run a large organization. I think I would perform better in a smaller organization with less than twenty-five (25) employees. I would make sure that the hygiene factors (working conditions, salary, security, co-worker relationships, etc.) are always in consideration and I would value input on speech those factors that make the employees unhappy. In order to increase the chance of the hygiene playing a stronger role in motivation, I.

Such issues as employee grievances and progress updates are communicated through management and team meetings. Walgreens store managers use horizontal communication to work out departmental problems and of Gun Control coordinate routines and schedules between the in pro, different departments with staff meetings. Furthermore, this company’s leaders also use informal communication techniques such as written communication in emails, company memos, and networking with go-to-meetings. A centralized network style of communication. Teamwork and Team Performance Essay examples. 2. Problem Identification Every team has a task at hand in which they need to Control, collectively work together towards accomplishing. Some of the primary problems in this group are in the forming and storming stage, getting different people with different work ethics to understand and get to know one another. In this case Christine dealt with all different personalities, ranging from a businessman to teenage mother, a clown, trying to get them to work together to perform this analysis. The ultimate problem is to achieve. Organizational Behavior and Teamwork- Mgt 302 Essay. Not all group member’s assessment whether or not that group members will be able to be an effective factor to their team achievements.

When there are groups you have to make everyone feel comfortable, so they will voice their opinions. Of Gun Control Essay? Problems in the virtual groups stem from a lack of enthusiasm to involve the members, lacking consistency timetables, and for one person difference of opinion in the group. Once the group disperses from the bargaining table, some members will have a sidebar meeting. Essay on Cancer Essay Professionalism in the Health Field. a part of Control Essay, a multi disciplinary approach to curing cancer. Being part of teenage mother, a multi disciplinary approach means you have to have the professional aspect of teamwork. Teamwork is an Effects intracle part of every oncology department.

Nothing would be accomplished in an oncology department if teamwork was not evident. Per Meaning? If you are a person that lacks teamwork then you lack one of the most important skills of professionalism that a radiation therapists has. Control Essay? Since therapist interact with the patient on a daily. Many introverts seem to Cancer and Epigenetics, know this instinctively and resist being herded together. The author of Effects of Gun Essay, this article is not suggesting that teamwork be abolished, since it can offer a fun, stimulating, and useful way to exchange ideas, manage information, and build trust. However, most human beings have two contradictory impulses: we love and need one another yet we crave privacy and autonomy. To harness the energy that fuels both of these drives, our offices should encourage casual, cafe-style. Leadership practices, clinical support roles and compressed operational hours had positive effects on teamwork. Numbers of non-direct report staff and areas assigned had negative effects on teamwork. Teamwork did not vary by span, managerial experience, worked hours, occupational diversity or proportion of full-time employees.

Large, acute care teaching hospitals can enable managers to foster teamwork by enhancing managers' leadership practices, redesigning the flow or reporting structure for per meaning non-direct. commitment to a shared goal. Whilst the former can be an Effects Control Essay important component of teamwork, genuine teamwork involves capitalising on collective potential, rather than just maximising individual performance. Once the Cancer and Epigenetics, foundation of commitment to shared goals has been established, there are many approaches that can be taken to improving teamwork. More information on these approaches can be found in Effects Essay, our article on the choice of teamwork exercises. However, underpinning all these approaches is in pro, always the shared. Studies indicate that over 80% of Effects of Gun, organizations hire several forms of workplace teams; the Cancer Essay, ability to collaborate and Effects Essay successfully participate in teamwork is considered a critical skill in practically all organizations (Hansen, 2006). Institutions of Essay, Higher Education have answered the call of employers and have integrated group work into their curriculums. Teamwork is Effects of Gun Control Essay, a key component of most MBA curriculums nowadays. We know that simulates what they're going to be doing in the work environment, says. I preferred the Teamwork Environment.

Because, many projects within the workplace or at epithelial, school are too large or complex for of Gun Control Essay one individual to complete alone. Imagine someone trying to build the Golden State Bridge all by themselves. According to Jack Welch Some people have better ideas than others; some are smarter or more experienced or more creative. But everyone should be heard and respected. (Welch, 2005, p.56). Teamwork creates more than one solution to a problem because of varied backgrounds.

based on a culture that was already embedded (Palmer et al., 2009). It was a powerful discovery as it shifted the focus from solving the problem of increasing effectiveness to allowing the employees to continue in their current existing successful teamwork (Palmer et al., 2009). The AI process not only in pro per meaning looks to help an organization to create images of its future but, to also instill a renewed commitment to change among the groups of people working to Effects Essay, attain that future (Michael, 2005). In essence, Tyco International Case Study Essay. Ed Breen serving at the helm of the corporation the malaysian culture and customs, Governance Metrics International consultants rated the Tyco Corporation at a 9.0 in August of of Gun, 2005. Teenage Mother? Ed Breen has instilled four core values into Control their mission statements: Integrity, Excellence, Teamwork and Accountability.

The Tyco Corporation website shows that the four core values state: “Integrity. Culture? We must demand of ourselves and of each other the highest standards of individual and corporate integrity. We safeguard company assets. We comply. Organizational Psychology Essay examples. to use to enhance its employees. When a new employee is hired that employee is not contributing positively to Effects of Gun Control, the company in a period. This is because the Cancer and Epigenetics, new hire is not properly trained. Several companies have implemented some form of teamwork.

Teamwork has proven to motivate people and challenge the slower employees. Companies desire to have some way to track their employees (Research, March). To arrive at desired results from people one must have a plan. This is of Gun Control, where I/O comes in, with thorough. really hard to be really good. However, anyone can be a great soccer player, but only malaysian culture and customs if they put effort in to Control Essay, it. Soccer also mentality teaches determination, faith, and in pro teamwork, and that if you are going to pursuit for your dreams you can achieve anything. And all these are taught by the game of soccer. Soccer also requires teamwork to the maximum. However, a few players can change the momentum of the game, but without your teammate’s support, no one can do anything. Unlike football where the key.

Wac Styled Analysis About Morgan Stanley Essay. OPTIONS | 6 | 6 | RECOMMENDATION | 8 | 7 | ACTION PLAN | 9 | 7 | EXHIBIT | 10 | Situation Analysis The work environment of Morgan Stanley was well known for its teamwork and innovation, building consensus and for treating employees with dignity and respect. Parson is given an Control a opportunity into this environment for the sole purpose of improving the Capital Markets division. Culture The Development? He has been influential in building Morgan. Acknowledge those with the highest status first, then acknowledge those who are the oldest, as it's important to show respect for status and age. • Expect your Korean colleagues to deliberate in a group before making decisions. Collectivity and teamwork are valued in Korean business transactions. • Hire a Korean interpreter if you aren't fluent in Korean or if your colleagues don't speak English. • Wear a dark-colored, conservative business suit to Korean business meetings. • Do you. interesting. Effects Of Gun Essay? Also this was the first time that defense actually mattered a lot and was the main reason that the team with the best goalie won the championship. The skills learned in sports were cooperation, teamwork, reliability and finally sportsmanship. In basketball it was cooperation and teamwork because no matter how good you are there is culture and customs, no way for you to be a one man show and to add on to the fact after one shot another person had to shoot which forced people to cooperate and work together. The.

Essay on Benefit of Playing Guitars. 8. It promotes teamwork: Playing in a band is of Gun Essay, not only a lot of fun, you can actually learn the dynamics of teamwork and working with a diverse group of people with different strengths and techniques. You’ll need to learn to work together in and customs, order to of Gun Essay, ‘find your sound’. Cancer And Epigenetics? You can learn a lot from your team mates, expand your musical knowledge and horizons and grow as a musician. 9. It gives you a good ego-boost: Not everyone can play the Essay, guitar. In fact, you’re one of the few people in the world who.

Essay about Case 16 Callaway Golf: Big Bertha’s Team Hits a Long Ball. Callaway, now deceased, retired from the company in 2001. His vision continues to be carried out under the leadership of his handpicked successor, Ron Drapeu, and the various teams that are the backbone of Callaway’s operations. Tissue Function? (7) Teamwork at Callaway Golf Teamwork at Callaway Golf is built around five different teams: research and development, information systems, manufacturing, sales, and general/administrative. The research and of Gun Essay development team ( which draws on engineering, analytical, and. Illusions of Violence to teenage mother, Video Games Essay. effects are less bullying, increased IQ’s, better visual attention and awareness, decreases in aggressive behavior and teamwork skills and some other studies show that it’s the mind set in which you play the games and Control most people its casual and some its serious. The serious players may show more improvement in these fields because multiplayer games can easily give them teamwork skills and even. Creative Freedom All team members should feel free to think creatively--to try new things and teenage mother fail without the fear of consequences. This aspect of teamwork brings together all of the other elements for effective teamwork. Team members must trust that others will listen openly to their ideas, they must be able to confidently and openly communicate their new ideas, they must be trusted enough in their area of expertise to lead the way in new initiatives and they must be adaptable enough to accommodate. Indentifying Characteristices of an Effective Team Essay.

roles overlap or a team member seems to not be able to Effects Control Essay, recognise their role in epithelial, the team this can lead to miscommunication, delays in reaching conclusions and an inability for a team to ultimately reach their goals. Poor teamwork can cause an atmosphere of of Gun Control Essay, confusion. Poor teamwork ultimately results in a lack of vision, and will result in lower profits. Cancer And Epigenetics? 4. Explain how to create and maintain an effective team (32 marks) Bruce Tuckmann proposed a method of creating a team. In the form of Forming.

get the same outcomes or better outcomes at lower cost” (Nisen, 2013, February 23). It would be wonderful if more hospitals got on board with this way of Effects Control, thinking, but this kind of teamwork is not for every doctor or for every administration. Budgets and egos tend to override the importance of patient care and teamwork in many hospitals. Being a work in progress with patient care always in tissue function, the forefront is what drives Mayo Clinic and their way of operating to be so sought after. References. environment for his or her team or group. This also ensured that each individual’s psychological needs were met to increase teamwork and productivity.

Other developments in this field consist of fair treatment for all individuals, regardless if he or she is in a group or not. There are also specific types of leaders that can change the way an individual adheres to Control Essay, teamwork or an short speech about friendship organization. Of Gun Essay? The goal of epithelial function, organizational psychology is. P1 Explain the Personal Attributes Valued by Employers Essay. because you will need to complete the work and of Gun Essay hand it in on short friendship time. Team working is the process of Effects Essay, working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal. Teamwork is often a crucial part of culture influence of roman, a business, as it is often necessary for colleagues to work well together, trying their best in any circumstance. Teamwork means that people will try to cooperate, using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between individuals. Employers find. employees continue challenging each other to Effects of Gun Control Essay, improve company products and be the best.

This allows us to challenge each other to epithelial tissue function, improve products, processes and of ourselves. (3) Teamwork: leadership that teaches and inspires you to work as a team player. This environment encourages innovation, creativity and results through teamwork and mutual respect. (4) Accountability: employees taking personal responsibility in everything they do. We will take personal responsibility for our actions and results. how to divide the inventories they have. * In every company or even a small organization they should have the understanding, communication and teamwork. Understanding because they should have to understand each other’s department to avoid conflicts and misunderstandings. Effects Essay? Communication because without this the company will be miserable. And teamwork because as an organization you need to act as one to achieve the goals you desire for your company because all of you will suffer and get benefit in. problems. Culture Of Roman Civilization? Roles, needs and diversity affect a group’s teamwork immensely because if members aren’t performing their specific goal and only focusing on a self-centered role the Effects of Gun Control Essay, groups work will either multiply for the other members of the group or the group’s common goal might not be met. We as humans all have basic needs, the need to be included, the need to be liked by others and for some people the need to be in control.

These needs can affect teamwork because if members of the team aren’t feeling like. | | Goal-oriented (preference) | | | | Passion for learning (preference) | | | | Teamwork (preference) | |

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courier new essay Ensuring that customers get what they want is called a service quality. Managing service delivery is the single most effective mean for differentiation among companies. Effects Of Gun Control Essay. Technologies and travel industry development bring people and products even closer. Service operations managers should make increasing customer participation in quality service delivery a major goal if they want to stay competitive on the market.

The impact of customer participation in malaysian service delivery on perception of the quality of the product is of Gun Essay not absolutely researched yet. There is a tendency that increased level of customer participation in the services that are familiar for customer, will lead to higher perceived quality of service delivered. Service Delivery and Customer Experience. Rapid developments of self – service technologies are becoming the main service delivery channel in recent years. The customer participation is service process is Cancer quickly increasing due to this reason. Service operations managers need to decide to which extend the customer is involved into delivery process. It is Control Essay expected that in nearest future only two extreme formats of delivery will prevail: complete employee service and complete self – service. Greek Culture The Development. The mixture of these two extremes is still present in businesses today, even though the increasing self-service delivery will change the situation. Customer’s involvement is usually mandatory, obligatory for the delivery processes. However, the service operations manager needs to Effects know very well the specifics of service product: the level of necessary customer involvement will vary depending on this.

There are cases when customers provide only malaysian culture and customs, minimal assistance throughout the process: they stay passively preoccupied. Nevertheless, in most cases customers substitute employee service with the self-service: they play active roles. Especially recently, customers tend to Control be more active in self – service. Increasing customer involvement has a lot of benefits as practice has shown. For example, Internet auctions and Internet banking are all self – serviced.

Such new business models (aimed at using full customer self – service) have great success in Cancer and Epigenetics Essay establishing their market position and achieving greater market share. There is a growing competition between these emerging self – service based companies and traditional employee based service companies. For example, Internet stock trading companies – customer trading stocks successfully competes against traditional brokerage companies – employee trades for customers. Control Essay. In this example, the outcome of the competition is and Epigenetics obvious - the workload between the Effects of Gun Control, company and epithelial customer (serf – service) is a decisive factor. The expenses for hiring new employees for service delivery are absent.

The company gets pure income. This is another reason why service operations manager should try to Effects increase customer participation as much as possible. The difference in culture and customs the proportion of Essay workload which is outsourced tot eh customer or end user influences the company’s service delivery process and infrastructure as well as costs’ reduction. In addition, the teenage mother, impact of increased customer participation in the delivery process on the service quality is defined by of Gun Control Essay the self – service level. Customer’s self –service is an important, sometimes even bigger, part of the service. Epithelial Function. Productivity and of Gun Control Essay customer efficiency also has influence on service quality and expected demand. When a customer participates in the process, the perceived value of the culture, service is increased many times, because customer himself has done something by himself. As a result, customers increasing participation in Effects Control the service processes will bring changes on the market with high competition level.

There are many questions to be answered before the company decides to use full self – serviced delivery. Among them are: Will the self – serving companies be able to gain enough of market share to be competitive on the market compared to traditional approaches? How will this result be achieved by self – serviced companies? Who will be the leader: new approaches to delivery or traditional ones? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each service delivery approach? These questions can be answered only by the service mangers that have tried both approaches and found out which one is better. The role self – service and customer in teenage mother the process of Effects of Gun Essay delivery is teenage mother very important, because the customer creates the value of the service by himself.

He is the one responsible for the delivery quality and there is nobody else to blame for faults. Outsourcing delivery of service to customers gives competitive advantage to of Gun the company. People like to be involved in the process which will bring benefit to them; they are doing it not for somebody else but for themselves. Service manager needs to teenage mother decide what services can be outsourced or what amount of this service delivery can be handles by customers. If the service is not very complicated or difficult to Effects Control do and does not require highly specialized skills it can be outsourced to customers. In addition, even if some knowledge and expertise is required in service delivery it still can be outsourced: customer needs to be provided with certain information on how to accomplish the task.

There was a mathematical model developed on Essay, how to calculate profit levels of two companies: one using full self – service delivery and the other using full –service. The research resulted in the interesting finding that the optimal, the best proportion of the workload to be outsourced is 0% or 100%. If the number is Essay somewhere in between, the company may even encounter minimization of the profit figure. The service operations managers, therefore, have a choice of two options: to outsource as much of service delivery as possible or continue using traditional service delivery approaches. Also research has shown that companies with self – service had higher income rations than the ones with full service due to greek the absence of expenses for having employees to deliver this service to customer. The key characteristic of the service delivery is the Effects Control Essay, combination of simultaneous production and consumption. Customers get involved in the process so they influence the outcome of the quality of service delivery and the satisfaction by it. Before the malaysian culture and customs, service transaction can be completed, the customer needs to contribute some information or effort. The quality, therefore, depend on this information or effort of the customer. Because services are intangible, there is Control Essay always a risk associated with the service delivery. Introducing self - servicing, attributes part of this risk to customer’s role.

For this reason, the service operations manager needs to try to increase the level of customer participation. Culture And Customs. However, the service provides will always risk in this situation in the control over the encounter cannot be ensured with relying on customers to perform the task of delivering service. The most important issue of the customer participation are the roles which customers take in the service delivery. It is Effects Control Essay important for service managers to epithelial function remember that customer comes to a service encounter with an idea in mind about what their role should be in this cooperation. Of Gun Control. This idea might have been derived from previous experience with similar services. Most often customer knows what to do because he has seen it in the advertising, on television or heard through word – of – mouth.

It is also important for service manager to know and friendship make necessary adjustments, that not all customers will come with correct and the same understanding of their roles. Necessary facilities need to Effects Control Essay clearly explain what should occur. Roles also have important involvement of control issues. Clear communication of the information and mutual understanding of the roles which each party needs to perform will clarify the tissue function, amount of control each party has. It is Effects of Gun Essay a proven fact that this mutual understanding between parties resulted in higher satisfaction received from service if both parties understood beforehand what their roles should be. There are a couple of strategies proposed which help service managers to manage customer participation. For example, telling customers in advance what are their expected roles. The customer needs prior training in operational procedures – this will increase the satisfaction level of service delivered. Although there has been a lot of discussion in the literature about the customer participation in service delivery, the definition and management of the roles needed in the participation are still unexplored. However, it is in pro a fact that if individuals have no necessary information about their roles and roles of service provider, they will get involved in of Gun Control coping others that can result in anxiety and teenage mother higher dissatisfaction level. The control that customers feel during their participation in service encounters influences the level of satisfaction they receive from service.

Service operations manager needs to know how to increase this satisfaction. One way is to offer alternatives, choices within the servicing setting. Effects Of Gun Essay. For example, remote availability of electronic resources, photocopying of printed materials and self – servicing facilities, reference consultation on – site or by telephone. The problems in service encounter usually appear because of the conflicts: who has more control in the service interactions. Both customer and provider of service have a need for control. It is generally accepted that customer participation has positive impact on both providers and teenage mother customers. Here questions start to appear: how this positive participation can be stimulated and managed? Service manager needs to know how to manage customer participation in service encounters to have beneficial outcomes for both sides.

Service providers must develop mechanisms and find ways to make sure that customers know what is expected from them and put effort to facilitate the outcome. Customers need to be empowered to co-produce their own experience. Effects Control Essay. Increasing customer involvement brings cost and convenience benefits for organization and customer himself. Service manager needs to remember that the greater the greek culture the development, involvement of the Effects Control, customer in the service delivery, the greater the likelihood that this experience will meet expectations of both company and customer. Greek Influence The Development Civilization. If it does not happen, the Control Essay, customer also bears the part of short speech about responsibility and the service provider is not the only part to put guilt on. Introducing self – serving methods of service delivery, company will gain loyalty from those customers who think of themselves as part of the organizational family. Moreover, through communicating with customers, service provider may directly learn defects of service and have immediate feedback about what should be done to Effects Essay improve. It is in pro important to Effects Control understand that service is a not just a delivery of product, it is a process, a deed, a performance and effort from both provider and customer. It goes beyond the first encounter with a customer; it builds relationship between the company and society represented by this customer.

Service operations manager should be aware that they do not only create the economic value for the firm but also social value for the customers. Customers have expectations that their rights are respected and the company needs to stick to ethical standards and contribute to speech friendship the development. It is impossible to quantify the value of service delivered, but the value of Effects of Gun Control Essay quality it adds to the company is short speech about obvious. The managing delivery quality is equally important as increasing customer participation in the process. It has a significant impact on whether this person, this customer will deal with the company again, use its service or not.

It is not a secret for anybody that negative word - of – mouth is the strongest factor that can lead to very high loses of company. Of Gun. It is very hard to malaysian culture recover from negative image, it needs big investment (additional expenses) and a lot of time of top management (time is of Gun Essay money). That is teenage mother why service managers are primary responsible for creating the positive image through higher involvement of customers into Essay service delivery process. Effective service delivery is not only the process of exchanging values, the performance of other supporting activities is even more important. Among these activities are provision of information and advice, responsiveness to customer needs, handling complaints and common courtesy. It is understandable, that all these activities are easier to how did influence the development perform when delivery is full – serviced or at least half- serviced. When participation of customer is increased the involvement of trained personnel is Effects of Gun Control Essay limited to minimum. In this situation customer must have access to teenage mother information they need, way to express complains and Essay give recommendation if they have one in their mind.

Each good service manager should understand how customers derive utility form the service. These are factors underlying service delivery: (1) understanding how the organization can produce and deliver this utility tot eh ultimate consumer, (2) understanding how the organization needs to Essay be managed to add value to the service delivered (increasing customer satisfaction), and (3) enabling the organization to meet its objectives to both customers and company itself. Increasing customer involvement into process of service delivery will become number one objective for service managers it the companies that wants to stay competitive on of Gun Control Essay, the market when new technologies are developing very quickly. As this paper has shown customer participation has many benefits not only for the company but also for the customer himself. Tissue. Decreasing labor costs for Effects of Gun Control provider and and Epigenetics Essay increasing user satisfaction are the most important factors. Fitzsimmons, J.A. Fitzsimmons, M.J. Of Gun Control. (2004). Service Management Operations, Strategy and Information Technology, 4th ed, McGraw-Hill, USA.

Bateson, J. E. G. (1985). “Perceived Control and the Service Encounter.” J. A. Czepiel, C. A. Surprenant, M. R. Solomon (Eds.), The Service Encounter: Managing Employee/Customer Interaction in teenage mother Service Businesses (pp. Effects Control. 68-72). In Pro Per Meaning. Lexington: Lexington Books. Dean, A. (1997). “The Impact of Consumer Participation on Perceived Service Quality”. Monash Working Paper Series, (24), Melbourne: Monash University,. Department of Management. Dellande, S. Gilly, M. (1998). “Gaining Customer Compliance in Services.” T. A. Effects Of Gun Control. Swartz, D. E. Bowen S. Cancer And Epigenetics. W. Brown (Eds.), Advances in Services Marketing and Management: research and practice. (v. 7, pp. 265-292). Greenwich, Conn., JAI Press.

Faranda, W. T. (1994). Customer Participation in Service Production: An Empirical Assessment of the Influence of Realistic Service Previews. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. File, K. M., Judd, B. B., Prince, R. Of Gun Control Essay. A. (1992). Function. “Interactive Marketing: the Influence of Participation on Positive Word-of-Mouth and Referrals.” Journal of Effects of Gun Services Marketing, 6(4), 5-14. Mills, P. K., Morris, J. H. Tissue Function. (1986). “Clients as 'Partial' Employees: Role Development in Client Participation.” Academy of Essay Management Review, 11(4). Mohr, L. A., Bitner, M. J. (1991). “Mutual Understanding Between Customers and Employees in Service Encounters.” Advances in Consumer Research, 18. Dilemma on tissue, NATO#039;s Purpose After Cold War. Colorado Creative Music (CCM) Company Overview.

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