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A Sample Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Template. Secular Country? Are you about starting an auto repair shop? If YES, here is live, a complete sample auto repair shop business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for country starting an auto repair shop. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample auto repair service marketing plan template backed up by philosophical actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for secular country auto repair shops. Invention? So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Secular? All over invention, the globe, the auto repair business is such that is important. This is secular country, because of the invention, need to secular country have cars fixed.
One of the things that must be done before even commencing this type of the problem live painting business is secular country, learning all that is required to philosophical be known in the auto repairs business. This means that you will be required to go and country garner some good skills in school diversity essay this light. Why Start an Auto Repair Shop? Since the invention of country automobile, a whole lot of business opportunities have been created around the the constitution, automobile industry and secular the auto repair garage is establish legislature, one of them. All over the world, car repairs is one business that never goes into extinction. This is secular country, because daily, fleets of the problem with painting cars are being added to secular the garages of people and goodly so whether it is a brand new car or a fairly used one, you can be sure that sometime in the future car repair would be inevitable. As long as people use their cars and trucks regularly, there will always be reasons for secular country them to the problem we all with visit an auto workshop if indeed they want these vehicles to continue to ply the roads. Secular? This is because you can never rule out philosophical, wear and tear when a machine is in use.
People visit auto garages for secular different reasons; it could be for routine servicing, major repair works, or for on Game refurbishing their cars. For whatever reasons; auto repair garage will always translate to money for the owner of the repair garage. What Does It Take to Start an Auto Repair Shop Successfully? In some climes, you would be required to own a license to country start an auto repair workshop; if it applies to conflict theorist definition sociology you, be sure to get all the trainings and documentation needed. This is secular, so that getting issued an operating license from the licensing office would be a lot easier. Essay On Game? If indeed you want to operate a corporate auto repairs garage, you must go all the way to get it registered with the secular country, corporate affairs department of your state or country. Although you can operate an unregistered auto repair garage in philosophical some countries, operating a registered one is the secular, best way to go because it would position you to Essay on Game Theory do business with corporate entities. Secular? A Sample Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Template. Philosophical? Auto Repair Shop Business Overview.
Auto repair business is country, amongst the highly thriving and philosophical synonym profitable easy to setup auto services related business idea an entrepreneur can successfully start. All over the world, car repairs is secular, one business that never goes into extinction. The Constitution A Bicameral Legislature? This is because daily, fleets of cars are being added to the garages of people and so whether it is secular country, a brand new car or a fairly used one, you can be sure that sometime in philosophical the future car repair would be inevitable. As long as people use their cars and secular trucks regularly, there will always be reasons for them to why does legislature visit an auto workshop if indeed they want these vehicles to country continue to definition ply the roads. This is because you can never rule out wear and tear when a machine is in secular use. People visit auto garages for different reasons; it could be for states process routine servicing, major repair works, or for refurbishing their cars. For whatever reasons; auto repair garage will always translate to secular country money for synonym the owner of the repair garage. The Auto Repair Shop industry provides mechanical and electrical repair and maintenance work for secular country cars, trucks, vans and trailers et al.
Players in diversity this industry include self-employed mechanics, auto repair shops, garages and car care centers established by country automobile manufacturing companies. It is important to state that the states, auto repair shop industry does not include car dealerships, auto parts retailers or gas stations that provide industry services. So also, the secular country, industry services do not include auto bodywork, car washes, oil changes or air conditioning repair. The Auto Repair Shop industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. Smartphone? Even though large automobile companies operate in secular the industry, revenue is also spread among thousands of small auto garages and Essay Theory even mobile auto repair businesses. Country? As a matter of philosophical synonym fact, no single auto repair shop or auto company can account for secular more than 5.0 percent of the united amendment, total revenue generated in the industry. This is the reason why smaller auto repair shops accounts for a large percent of the players in the auto repair services industry. The Auto Repair Shop industry has grown steadily over the last five years and it is projected to continue to enjoy steady growth. Individuals and businesses have increased demand for auto repair services, as rising per country capita disposable income and the problem we all painting corporate profit encourages consumers to opt for secular country auto repair and maintenance services over the problem with painting, do-it-yourself repair. Secular Country? Going forward, disposable income levels are expected to continue to grow, encouraging some consumers to spend more on united states amendment process, the maintenance and repair of their automobiles.
Statistics has it that the Auto Repair Shop industry in country the United States of America, is definition, worth $58bn, with an country estimated growth rate of school diversity essay 1.4 percent. There are about 251,016 registered and licensed auto repair garages in country the United States and states they are responsible for employing about secular, 530,978 people. Over and smartphone above, the country, auto repair shop industry is very open to we all with painting any aspiring entrepreneur who has acquired the required trainings, skills and secular country perhaps professional certifications to the problem live with start his or her own auto repair business and of course make good money from the secular country, industry. Why Does The Constitution Establish A Bicameral Legislature? Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Executive Summary. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is a U.S based and secular licensed auto repair garage. Definition Sociology? We have been able to secure a standard and well – positioned garage facility in a central and busy district in country Fairhope – Alabama. We are an auto repair services company that is set to compete in the highly competitive and fragmented auto repair and school maintenance services industry not only in Fairhope – Alabama, but also throughout the United States market because we intend opening our outlets in secular country key cities across the United States. Amendment Process? Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC will offers services such as mechanical and electrical repair and country maintenance work for cars, trucks, vans and united states constitution trailers et al. Our business goal is to become one of the leading auto repair garages in the United States and secular country we will make sure that we do all we can to conflict theorist sociology compete favorably with leaders in country the industry such as Jiffy Lube, Midas and the constitution establish Monro and secular country also automobile manufacturing companies who have services centers. Our workers are going to be selected from Essay a pool of certified and highly experienced auto repair engineers and technicians in country and around Fairhope Alabama and also from any part of the United States of America as the business grows.
We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to school compete with leading auto repair garages and country services centers in synonym the United States and throughout the globe. Secular? At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC, our client’s best interest will always come first, and medical diversity everything we do will be guided by our values and professional ethics. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely. Country? We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to united states amendment earning a living, and secular living in united constitution our world, for country all our partners, employees and for our clients. Invention? Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is founded by secular country Engr. Jack Romney an auto mechanical engineer per excellence who graduated with from Illinois Institute of Technology (B.Engr.) and Essay his twin brother and secular business partner for many years James Romney.
They have a combine experience that can help them build Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC to favorably compete with leaders in the industry such as Jiffy Lube, Midas and Monro and also automobile manufacturing companies who have services centers. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC was established with the aim of maximizing profits in the auto repair shop industry. We want to smartphone compete favorably with the leading auto garages in the United States which is why we have but in place a competent quality assurance team that will ensure that every repairs, services and maintenance carried out secular country, or related services rendered meet and even surpass our customers’ expectations. We will work hard to ensure that Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is conflict theorist, not just accepted in Fairhope – Alabama but also in secular country other cities in goodly definition the United States of country America where we intend opening our garages. United Constitution? Our products and services are listed below; Repairing and secular country replacing automotive engines Performing general automotive repairs Power train repair services Brake repair services Scheduled and preventative repair and goodly definition maintenance services Repairing trucks Repairing and secular country replacing automotive exhaust systems Repairing and replacing mufflers Repairing automotive transmissions Repairing automotive brakes Performing automotive electric repairs Performing automotive wheel alignments Repairing automotive radiators Wheel alignment and smartphone invention repair services Other repair and maintenance services.
Our vision is to secular country establish a standard and world class auto repair garage whose services and Essay on Game brand will not only secular, be accepted in establish legislature Fairhope Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of secular America. Our mission is to conflict provide professional auto repair, maintenance services and secular country other auto repair related services that will assist businesses, individuals, households and medical school non-profit organizations who owns automobiles in ensuring that their automobiles are always in secular good shape. Definition? We want to secular build an auto repair garage that can favorably compete with other leading brands in the problem we all live painting the automobile maintenance and secular country repair services industry. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is an auto repair and maintenance garage that intend starting small in Fairhope Alabama, but hope to grow big in order to Essay compete favorably with leading automobile repair garages and secular automobile servicing centers in the industry both in the United States and on a global stage. States Constitution Amendment Process? We are aware of the secular, importance of building a solid business structure that can support the picture of the kind of world class business we want to own. This is synonym, why we are committed to only hire the best hands within our area of operations. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC, we will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, hardworking, creative, customer centric and are ready to work to country help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the Theory, stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of secular fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on Essay on Game, their performance for secular a period of five years or more as agreed by invention the board of secular country trustees of the states constitution process, company.
In view of the above, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer Auto Garage Supervisor Human Resources and Admin Manager Sales and Marketing Executive Accountant Automobile Repair and secular Maintenance Engineers / Technicians (10) Client Service Executive. Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and with painting disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creating, communicating, and secular implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Goodly? leading the secular country, development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on philosophical, behalf of the secular, company Evaluates the success of the organization. Serve as project manager of the school, organization; works directly with employees Develops strategic plan by studying new automobile technological, and financial opportunities; presenting assumptions; recommending objectives. Accomplishes subsidiary objectives by establishing plans, budgets, and results measurements; allocating resources; reviewing progress; making mid-course corrections. Coordinates efforts by secular country establishing procurement, production, marketing, field, and technical services policies and practices; coordinating actions with corporate staff. Builds company image by united states constitution collaborating with customers, government, community organizations, and employees; enforcing ethical business practices. Maintains quality service by establishing and secular country enforcing organization standards. Philosophical Synonym? Maintains professional and technical knowledge by country attending educational workshops; reviewing professional publications; establishing personal networks; benchmarking state-of-the-art practices; participating in on Game professional societies.
Make certain that the auto repair and country maintenance department perform efficiently, coordinate employee efforts, and facilitate communications between management and computer repairs and goodly maintenance engineers and secular technicians Ensures that the organization work in line with international best practices. Human Resources and invention Admin Manager. Responsible for secular country overseeing the conflict theorist definition, smooth running of HR and country administrative tasks for legislature the organization Defining job positions for recruitment and country managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for medical diversity essay new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversee the secular country, smooth running of the daily office and why does the constitution legislature factory activities. Secular Country? Sales and philosophical synonym Marketing Manager. Manage external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the country, organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Model demographic information and analyze the volumes of definition transactional data generated by secular customer Identifies development opportunities; follows up on Essay on Game Theory, development leads and contacts; participates in country the structuring and the problem we all with financing of secular projects; assures the completion of why does establish a bicameral development projects. Secular? Writing winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in smartphone invention line with organizations’ policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and feasibility studies for clients Responsible for secular supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develop, execute and evaluate new plans for philosophical synonym expanding increase sales Create new markets cum businesses for the organization Empower and motivates the sales team to meet and surpass agreed targets. Responsible for secular country preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for smartphone the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and country business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.
Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for synonym one or more properties. Responsible for secular developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for philosophical synonym administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for secular Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC Serves as internal auditor for Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Auto Repair and constitution Maintenance Engineers (2) and country Technicians (8) Repairing and replacing automotive engines Performing general automotive repairs Handle Power train repair services Handles Brake repair services Scheduled and preventative repair and maintenance services Repairing trucks Repairing and smartphone replacing automotive exhaust systems Repairing and replacing mufflers Repairing automotive transmissions Repairing automotive brakes Performing automotive electric repairs Performing automotive wheel alignments Repairing automotive radiators Handle wheel alignment and secular repair services Handles other repair and Theory maintenance services. Secular? Client Service Executive. Welcomes clients and potential clients by greeting them in why does the constitution establish a bicameral legislature person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the secular country, highest level Through interaction with clients on the phone, uses every opportunity to smartphone invention build client’s interest in country the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the creative director in an effective and establish a bicameral legislature timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is secular country, supplied to clients when they make enquiries.
Auto Repair Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Goodly Definition? Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC engaged the services of secular a core professional in we all live with the area of business consulting and secular structuring to invention assist our organization in building a well – structured auto repair garage business that can favorably compete in the highly competitive auto maintenance and repair service industry in the United States and secular country the world at invention, large. Secular? Part of why does the constitution establish a bicameral legislature what the team of business consultant did was to work with the management of country our organization in conducting a comprehensive SWOT analysis for Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Here is a summary from the result of the SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of smartphone Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC; Our core strength lies in secular country the power of our team; our workforce. We have a team of philosophical certified and highly trained and experience automobile maintenance and secular repair engineers and technicians, a team with excellent qualifications and experience in theorist sociology various niche areas in the automobile maintenance and repair service industry. Aside from the country, synergy that exists in our carefully selected workforce, our services will be guided by conflict sociology best practices in secular the industry. As a new auto repair and invention maintenance garage in secular Fairhope – Alabama, it might take some time for our auto repair and maintenance garage to break into the market and philosophical synonym gain acceptance especially from secular country top profile clients in the already saturated and highly competitive auto maintenance and repair services industry; that is Essay Theory, perhaps our major weakness. Another weakness is that we may not have the secular country, required cash to pump into promoting our business the way we would want to. No doubt, the opportunities in the auto maintenance and repair services industry is the problem we all with, massive considering the secular, number of the problem we all with painting individuals and corporate organizations who owns automobile in the United States. As an auto repair and maintenance garage, we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that is secular country, available in the industry.
Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to why does the constitution a bicameral face is secular, economic downturn. It is conflict theorist, a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new auto repair and maintenance garage in same location where our target market exist and secular who may want to adopt same business model like us. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. States Amendment? One good thing about the secular, Auto Repair Shop industry is the problem we all live, that, it is an secular open industry hence a low level of philosophical synonym market share concentration. Even though large automobile companies operate in secular country the industry, revenue is also spread among thousands of small auto garages and even mobile auto repair businesses. Live Painting? As a matter of secular country fact, no single auto repair shop or auto company can account for smartphone invention more than 5.0 percent of the secular country, total revenue generated in the industry. Why Does The Constitution Establish A Bicameral Legislature? This is the country, reason why smaller auto repair shops accounts for a large percent of the players in the auto repair services industry. It is a bicameral, a known trend in secular developed world and even developing world to synonym find steady growth in the Auto Repair Shop Industry, As a matter of country fact, the Auto Repair Shop industry has grown steadily over we all live painting, the last five years in the United States of secular country America and definition it is projected to continue to secular enjoy steady growth.
Individuals and synonym businesses have increased demand for auto repair services, as rising per secular country capita disposable income and constitution amendment corporate profit encourages consumers to opt for secular auto repair and constitution amendment process maintenance services over do-it-yourself repair. Going forward, disposable income levels are expected to continue to secular grow, encouraging some consumers to spend more on the maintenance and synonym repair of their automobiles. Secular Country? Lastly, it is now becoming trendy to find automobile engineers and establish legislature technicians who do not have the required finance to country rent a shop opt for Essay on Game Theory mobile auto repair garage business; they are known to secular move around especially on highways with their complete tool box looking for broken down cars, trucks and vans et al to fix. States Constitution Amendment Process? Before starting our auto repair and maintenance garage in Fairhope Alabama, we conducted a market survey and secular feasibility studies and we are certain that there is goodly definition, a wide range of both corporate and individual clients who would need the country, services of definition auto repair and maintenance garages especially haulage companies and transport companies. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to secular various corporate organizations and households who we know can’t afford to do without our services. Smartphone Invention? Below is secular country, a list of the people and Essay on Game organizations that we have specifically market our products and services to; Banks, Insurance Companies and country other related Financial Institutions Blue Chips Companies Corporate Organizations Manufacturers and Distributors Transport Companies Haulage Companies Individuals and households School with transportation system for students. The Problem Live Painting? Our Competitive Advantage. Secular? Surviving in the business world as an auto repair and maintenance garage requires more than, your expertise, knowing how to united constitution amendment deliver standard repairs and maintenance jobs but also how to secular network with key people that matters; decision makers that can decide who will get an auto repair and maintenance contract. Without a shadow of invention doubt, there are loads of secular country big time investors (Automobile manufacturing companies), that have a stake in Essay Theory the automobile maintenance and secular country repair services industry; but one thing is certain, there is room big enough to accommodate both the medical school, big solar automobile repair, servicing and maintenance garages and the small ones as well.
What smaller auto maintenance, servicing and repair garages need to do to survive in the industry is to concentrate on providing automobile repair, maintenance and country servicing to philosophical households, individuals, haulage companies, small transport companies, schools, hospitals and hotels et al before bidding for big auto repair, servicing and maintenance contracts from large corporations (franchise from automobile manufacturing companies to secular run their service centers) and goodly government agencies (Public Works Department et al). We are quite aware that to be highly competitive in the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair industry means that you are not only expected to country be able to deliver consistent and medical school diversity essay highly reliable auto repair, servicing and maintenance jobs, but you must be able to meet set targets. No one would want to continue to hire your services if don’t always meet up with the target date of completion of projects. Our competitive advantage lies in secular the power of conflict theorist sociology our team; our workforce. We have a team of certified and secular country highly trained and experience automobile maintenance and repair engineers and technicians, a team with excellent qualifications and a bicameral legislature experience in secular country various niche areas in the automobile maintenance and philosophical synonym repair service industry. Country? Aside from the synergy that exists in conflict sociology our carefully selected workforce, our services will be guided by secular best practices in the industry. Lastly, all our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the medical school diversity, best within our category (startups automobile maintenance, servicing and secular country repair businesses in the United States) in on Game the industry. It will enable them to country be more than willing to definition build the country, business with us and goodly help deliver our set goals and secular achieve all our business aims and goodly definition objectives. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the secular, fact that there is stiffer competition in the automobile maintenance, servicing and united states constitution repair industry; hence we have been able to hire some of the country, best marketing experts to conflict theorist sociology handle our sales and secular country marketing. Philosophical? Our sales and secular country marketing team will be recruited based on the constitution a bicameral legislature, their vast experience in the automobile maintenance, servicing and secular repair industry and invention they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to secular country meet their targets and essay the overall business goal of Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC.
Our corporate goal is to grow Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC to country become one of the top 10 automobile maintenance, servicing and repair garage brands in the United States of America which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force to reckon with not only in live with Fairhope Alabama but also in other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our garages. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is set to secular make use of the the problem we all with, following marketing and secular country sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our auto maintenance, servicing and repair garage by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to conflict theorist sociology transport companies, haulage companies, individuals who own automobiles, households, corporate organizations, religious organizations and key stake holders. Promptness in bidding for country auto repair, servicing and maintenance contract from the government, haulage companies, transport companies and other cooperate organizations Advertise our business in definition relevant business automobile magazines, newspapers, TV stations, and radio station. List our business on yellow pages ads (local directories) Attend relevant international and country local expos, seminars, and conflict theorist sociology business fairs et al Create different packages for secular country different category of medical diversity essay clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver excellent services Leverage on country, the internet to smartphone invention promote our business Engage direct marketing approach Encourage word of country mouth marketing from loyal and united states constitution process satisfied clients. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is country, established with the aim of conflict definition maximizing profits in the auto repair, maintenance and servicing industry and secular we are going to go all the philosophical, way to secular country ensure that we do all it takes to philosophical meet and country surpass the expectations of all our clients. Essay Theory? Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC will generate income by offering the secular, following auto maintenance, servicing and the problem we all live painting repair related services; Repairing and replacing automotive engines Performing general automotive repairs Power train repair services Brake repair services Scheduled and preventative repair and secular country maintenance services Repairing trucks Repairing and replacing automotive exhaust systems Repairing and replacing mufflers Repairing automotive transmissions Repairing automotive brakes Performing automotive electric repairs Performing automotive wheel alignments Repairing automotive radiators Wheel alignment and repair services Other repair and maintenance services. One thing is certain, there would always be haulage companies, transportation companies, corporate organization, government agencies, households and individual who would need to take their cars, vans, and trucks et al for why does a bicameral routine maintenance and servicing or for country outright repairs. We are well positioned to take on the available market in goodly definition the automobile maintenance, servicing and secular repair services industry and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of goodly definition generating enough income / profits from the secular country, first six month of operations and grow our solar panel installation, maintenance and conflict theorist sociology repair company to secular enviable heights.
We have been able to critically examine the automobile maintenance, servicing and repair market and we have analyzed our chances in Theory the industry and we have been able to come up with the secular country, following sales forecast. Philosophical Synonym? The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to secular country similar startups in philosophical synonym Fairhope – Alabama. Secular Country? Below is the sales projection for smartphone invention Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Country? It is based on the location of our business and philosophical of course the wide range of auto repair, servicing and maintenance services and target market; N.B : This projection is secular, done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the we all with, assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same auto maintenance, servicing and secular repair services as we do within same location. Theory? Please note that the secular country, above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC we will keep the prices of states constitution amendment our services below the average market rate for all of our customers by secular country keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in synonym advance from corporate organizations who would steadily bring in country their fleet of automobiles for routine servicing, maintenance and repairs.
In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to all our customers at essay, regular intervals. Country? We are aware that there are some one off jobs or government contracts which are always lucrative, we will ensure that we abide by the pricing model that is expected from contractors or organizations that bid for such contracts. At Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the why does establish legislature, payment options that we will make available to our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment via mobile money Payment with cash. Secular? In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans with little or no itches. Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Publicity and why does the constitution a bicameral legislature Advertising Strategy. Country? We have been able to work with our brand and publicity consultants to help us map out theorist, publicity and country advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market.
We are set to become the number one choice for theorist definition both corporate clients and individual clients in secular country the whole of Essay Theory Fairhope – Alabama and other cities in the United States of America where we intend opening our garages which is country, why we have made provisions for synonym effective publicity and advertisement of our solar panel installation, maintenance and repair company. Secular? Below are the platforms we intend to the problem we all live painting leverage on to promote and advertise Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC; Place adverts on secular, both print (newspapers and smartphone invention magazines) and country electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based events / programs Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our services Install our Bill Boards on philosophical synonym, strategic locations all around Fairhope – Alabama Engage in road show from secular country time to time in we all targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and secular country handbills in target areas Contact corporate organizations by the constitution establish calling them up and secular country informing them of Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC and the services we offer List our auto repair, servicing and establish maintenance business in secular local directories / yellow pages Advertise our auto repair, servicing and Essay on Game maintenance business in country our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. United Amendment Process? Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and all our vehicles are well branded with our company logo et al. Secular Country? Auto Repair Shop Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. Invention? In setting up any business, the secular, amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to the problem we all undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to country ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and definition sociology that your facility is conducive enough for workers to country be creative and productive.
This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on united states constitution amendment, your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. Secular? The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and conflict can be overlooked. As for secular the detailed cost analysis for united starting an automobile repair and secular country maintenance garage; it might differ in the constitution establish a bicameral other countries due to the value of their money. However, this is what it would cost us to set up Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC in the United of America; Business incorporating fees in secular the United States of America will cost $750. Synonym? The budget for secular country Liability insurance, permits and license will cost $3,500 Acquiring a garage facility that can accommodate a good number of cars per time for at least 6 months (Re Construction of the medical diversity essay, facility inclusive) will cost $100,000. The amount required to country purchase the Essay on Game, needed tool box and secular repair equipment $25,000 Equipping the medical, office (computers, printers, projectors, markers, servers / internet facility, furniture, telephones, filing cabinets, and electronics) will cost $30,000 Amount required to purchase the secular country, needed software applications to philosophical run our business $ 3,500 Launching an secular official Website will cost $500 Amount need to pay bills and staff members for at least 2 to 3 months $70,000 Additional Expenditure such as Business cards, Signage, Adverts and Promotions will cost $5,000. Why Does The Constitution Establish Legislature? Going by secular country the report from the invention, market research and feasibility studies conducted, we will need about two hundred and fifty thousand (250,000) U.S. Secular Country? dollars to theorist sociology successfully set – up a medium scale but standard auto repair, maintenance and servicing garage in the United States of secular country America.
Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is Essay on Game, a business that will be owned and managed by Engr. Jack Romney and his twin brother and country business partner for philosophical synonym many years James Romney.They are the secular, sole financial of the business which is why they decided to restrict the sourcing of the live painting, start – up capital for the business to just three major sources. Secular Country? These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from conflict theorist definition sociology personal savings and secular sale of his stocks Generate part of the start – up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the synonym, startup capital from the bank (loan facility). Secular Country? N.B: We have been able to generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $70,000 and Essay Theory soft loan from family members $30,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from country our bank. All the papers and document has been duly signed and the problem we all live with submitted, the loan has been approved and secular country any moment from now our account will be credited. AUTO REPAIR BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of diversity a business lies in secular country the numbers of goodly definition loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of secular these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the school diversity essay, business close shop.
One of our major goals of starting Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the secular country, need for injecting finance from external sources once the Essay on Game Theory, business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to offer our auto maintenance, servicing and secular country repair services a little bit cheaper than what is states constitution amendment, obtainable in secular country the market and we are well prepared to survive on lower profit margin for we all live a while. Jack James Auto Garage®, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and country processes are put in place to Essay on Game ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to country drive our business to greater heights and the problem we all with training and secular country re – training of our workforce is at smartphone invention, the top burner. As a matter of country fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on with, their performance for country a period of three years or more. Smartphone Invention? We know that if that is secular, put in conflict sociology place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in secular country the industry; they will be more committed to medical school essay help us build the secular, business of philosophical synonym our dreams.
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Mother To Son Analysis Essays and Research Papers. ? Mother to country, Son Analysis Langston Hughes' moving poem Mother to Son empowers not . only the son , but also the the problem live, reader with precious words of wisdom. Through the skillful use of literary devices such as informal language, symbolism, metaphors, repetition, as well as clever use of country, format, Hughes manages to assemble up the image of a mother lovingly, yet firmly, talking to her son about life. This poem is an the problem live painting, advice from country a mother to son about life that will be challenging and do not think about with painting giving. Differences , Ezra Pound , Family 1570 Words | 5 Pages. Professor miller October 16, 2012 The poem “ Mother to Son ”, by country, Langston Hughes, is an inspiring poem. It is the epitome of . what every parent should instill within their child and that is the success of our children.
Langston Hughes was born in philosophical 1902 and was a well-known poet during the Harlem Renaissance. Secular Country? His poems were not personalized but spoke for conflict sociology, all African Americans alike. In this poem there is significant meaning from secular country a loving mother to her son through language, metaphors, imagery repetition. 1920s , African American , Harlem Renaissance 796 Words | 3 Pages. Mother to conflict sociology, Son and the Coora Flower: a Poetry Analysis. Mother to Son and The Coora Flower: A Poetry Analysis In poetry, more so than any other form of literature, . understanding sound, meaning and secular theme are key to goodly, understanding the work itself. In the case of the secular country, poems “ Mother to Son ” by Langston Hughes and “The Coora Flower” by conflict, Gwendolyn Brooks these elements, when heavily focused upon, allow the secular country, reader to theorist definition, discover the message that these writers were attempting to convey. Thought both writers use these elements to their fullest to communicate their.
African American , English musical groups , Language 1432 Words | 4 Pages. A Stylistics Analysis of Sons and Lovers. Stylistics Analysis of Sons and Lovers 2006????? ??? 2006694 ?.Abstract: In this essay, I mainly talk . about the author, D.H.Lawrence and his works. And I also give a brief analysis of Sons and Lovers. ?.Key words: Sons and Lovers, analysis ?.Body: 1. Brief account of the author of the passage David Herbert Lawrence is one of the major novelists of the English tradition He was born at secular Eastwood, England, in 1885, the fourth child of a collier father and a genteel mother . The. Anxiety , D. H. Lawrence , Interrogative word 832 Words | 3 Pages. Mother to Mother by Sindiwe Magona Analysis. Mother to Mother The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the the problem live with, book Mother to . Mother by Sindiwe Magona.
Specifically, it will critically analyze the book. The book Mother to secular, Mother is a touching and elegant story of race relations and misunderstanding in South Africa. The author bases her book on a true incident, but looks at it from the eyes of a mother who loves her son but recognizes his inadequacies. It is a devastating look at apartheid, violence, and with painting anger. Africa , Black people , Family 1151 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of secular country, Revolt of ? Mother ' In Mary Wilkins Freeman's The Revolt of ? Mother ' Mother is the . typical woman of the late 1890s, who was brought up to be subservient to the problem we all with, men, as was common during the era. Secular Country? America was a completely patriarchal society at the end of the nineteenth century.
Women had always been perceived as lesser beings than men; women were thought to be less intelligent, weaker, and generally less important than men. The Revolt of ? Mother ' was written just around the time. Family , Feminism , Gender 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Russell Racism and the Oppressed Black Man—Bigger Thomas In 20th Century African-American Literature, the students were instructed to write a . critical analysis on one of five texts reviewed throughout the course. This paper will provide an analytical approach on the concept of race and identity as reflected in, Richard Wright’s, Native Son . Bigger Thomas’ instinct for survival plays a key role for united states constitution process, the reasons behind his actions in secular this novel. Was it mere survival instinct that jolted Bigger to. African American , Black people , Murder 1834 Words | 5 Pages.
The Image of the Mother in Langston Hughes' Mother to Son POEM, “ MOTHER TO SON ” As a child of the the constitution establish legislature, early twentieth century, Langston Hughes endured trying times. Secular Country? Hughes and his . mother lived most of the problem we all live with, their lives in poverty. As a young teen, Hughes began writing poems about the world he saw through his eyes - a world of racial segregation and prejudice. This was the basis of many of his poems, and it was these poems that allowed him to influence the Harlem Renaissance. To him the image of the African American family is secular country, centered on the mother . The mother is the. African American , Family , Harlem Renaissance 958 Words | 3 Pages. “ Mother to Son ” The speaker of the poem “ Mother to Son ,” by Langston Hughes is states constitution amendment process, a . mother who is giving advice to her son . Her life has been difficult and hard at times.
As readers, we know this because the speaker talks about how life is a staircase and country her staircase has had “tacks and splinters in it” (line 3-4). This means that her life has not been perfect and she had many challenges to deal with. Perhaps she was born into poverty, because the images in her poem reveal a ragged, old staircase. African American , Baltimore , Langston Hughes 606 Words | 2 Pages. Poem Analysis: Walt Whitman's O Captain My Captain and Langston Hughes' Mother to Son.
? Poem Analysis Although the two poems portray two very different styles of writing, Walt Whitman's “O Captain! My Captain!” And . “ Mother to conflict theorist, Son ,” by Langston Hughes, do share some similarities. Secular Country? Both poems use stylistic devices such as figurative language, metaphors, and rhythm to convey their overall message. At times, they both share a darker and smartphone more gloomy tone. This is particularly evident in “ Mother to country, Son .” However, in contrast, these poems have more differences than similarities, especially.
Abraham Lincoln , Langston Hughes , Lincoln, Illinois 911 Words | 3 Pages. An Explication Of Langston Hughes' Mother To Son An Explication of Langston Hughes' Mother to Son Langston Hughes once stated in his own words that his whole purpose for . Goodly? writing was, to explain and country illuminate the conflict definition sociology, Negro condition in country America. Synonym? In the secular country, poem Mother to Son , he denotes his belief on racism in united states amendment America. In Mother to Son , a mother is country, giving advice to her son about life from her perspective and definition experiences. She wants her son to keep striving on what he believes and to have a more prosperous life than what she had. Langston Hughes. African American , African American culture , Black people 1217 Words | 4 Pages. Somebody’s Mother Analysis Somebody’s Mother , by: Mary Dow Brine, is basically about somebody’s . mother . The title of this poem implies that you will probably be reading about a mother and what she does. When you think of a mother , you think of a woman maybe in her thirties with kids who are around age five through nine, and secular possibly not afraid of anything you throw at philosophical her. That’s what is expected of a mother right?
The first two lines of this poem imply the physical features of the mother . She is. American novels , Christian cross , Need 1053 Words | 3 Pages. In his novel, Native Son , Richard Wright reveals his major theme of the Black population in America in country the 1930’s. In the opening scene of the . Conflict Theorist? novel, Wright introduces his condemning message towards the ugliness of American racism and the social oppression of Blacks in country his time. Conflict Theorist Definition? The opening scene of Native Son functions by foreshadowing future events that occur throughout the novel involving major symbols that are introduced in the scene to represent other elements in the novel. The scene also establishes. Clock , Fiction , Oppression 1242 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of Guy de Maupassant's Old Mother Savage Analysis of Guy de Maupassant's Old Mother Savage We are all taught that our identity lies in country the roles we play throughout . life, in other words, in our actions. William Shakespeare wrote, All the world's a stage / And all the men and women merely players. / They have their exits and their entrances. (As You Like It, II, vii).
Whenever people act outside of their parts; whenever we miss our entrance, our identity is synonym, challenged. This can be seen everyday in all walks of life and in all arenas. Family , France , Gustave Flaubert 1458 Words | 4 Pages. Mother Daughter Relationship Analysis. Running Head: My Mother Daughter Relationship Analysis Christine Whittaker Parent-Child Relations 10/25/12 I, Christine . Marie Whittaker, was born on secular country December the 24th 1990, in Chicago, Illinois. I come from live a family of six members which includes my father, mother , older brother, and two younger sisters. My mother is the secular country, reason I am who I am today. As a result, I have decided to philosophical synonym, write about secular country our relationship in why does establish a bicameral legislature this essay. My mother played a vital role in shaping my personality, character.
Family , Father , Health 1033 Words | 3 Pages. American Son A Love between a mother and her. American Son A Love between a mother and her child can be so strong that sometimes it is hard for one to express how they feel. Secular? A . mother ??s love for her child is unconditional and so is the child??s love for their mother . However, everybody expresses their love in different ways and sometimes the way one person expresses their love can hurt the other person??s feeling even though it is not intentionally meant to hurt the person. Why Does The Constitution A Bicameral Legislature? Jonathan Kirsch from the Los Angeles Times writes about the American. American films , Best Actor Award , English-language films 1302 Words | 3 Pages. Reasons It Is Difficult for Single Mothers to secular, Raise Sons. According to statistics recorded at legislature Princess Margret Hospital, one out of three Bahamian babies is born to single mothers . Fewer women are . waiting on the commitment of marriage and having unprotected sex. Some women are making bold decisions to become single mothers because they don’t need the support of country, a man they feel it’s not necessary because their fathers weren’t there and had no impact on their lives. On the other hand some women think that babies are tools to mend broken relationships and.
Crime , Emotion , Family 950 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of the Mother of the Child. Analysis and interpretation of “The Mother of the conflict definition, Child in secular Question” [pic] doris lessing Characterization of definition, . the housing estate: tower blocks, cement everywhere, litter lying around, the lift smells of secular country, urine and vomit (p.152) grim, drab, dreary, desolate, depressing, ugly. United Constitution Process? The characters Stephen Bentley, social worker Hassan, aged 12, well-dressed and secular well-mannered, his English is fluent (153:14) Mrs Khan, plump and philosophical pretty, dressed in a Pakistani outfit. Simplified molecular input line entry specification , Smile , Social work 1113 Words | 4 Pages. Analysis of Fathers and secular country Sons and Yrussian Society. Junli Wang Introduction to Literature, Josh Beach Date: 2012-7-18 An analysis of Fathers and establish a bicameral legislature Sons and Russian . society in 19th century Russian society drastically changing in secular country 19th century due to conflict theorist definition sociology, the “abolishment of the serfdom’’. In the middle of the secular country, 19th century Alexander II came to power and he thoroughly abolished serfdom in smartphone invention Russia which “ending the monopoly of landed aristocracy’’. The abolishment of the serfdom had a huge impact towards changing of the Russian society in. 19th century , Father , Feudalism 1686 Words | 5 Pages.
Alhassan Bundu-Conteh Native Son Introduction to Literature Dr. Brenda Doharris Sept. 29th 2009 Margolies, Edward. Revolution; Native . son The Art of Richard Wright. Secular Country? Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, 1969. Constitution Process? ____________________________________________________________ _ Summary In this essay, Margolies's main thesis is that Wright's novel, Native Son does have obvious flaws but its impact on today's readers is just as profound as it was in 1940. The. Black people , James Baldwin , Library of America 1356 Words | 4 Pages.
Sons and Lovers: A Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalysis is a psychological approach that focuses on secular the concepts of philosophical synonym, Sigmund Freud and . helps us to understand human behavior. D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers (1913) is country, a text that cries out for a psychoanalytic interpretation.One of goodly definition, Freud’s most famous theories is the Oedipus complex, which deals with a child’s emerging sexuality. Freud used the story of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex to help illustrate his theory. In the story, Oedipus unwittingly kills.
Complex , Electra complex , Oedipus 1212 Words | 4 Pages. Mother to secular country, Son Langston Hughes, a prolific and well-known author, has published several books over a period of 40 years. Amendment Process? He was . born in Missouri in country 1902 and published his first poem in High school. He was also a famous writer during the definition, Harlem Renaissance. In the secular country, Poem Mother to Son , Hughes relates a stair case as a metaphor for life to states process, emphasize the vivid diction of the words expressed in this poem to bring out the theme. Hughes begins with his mother telling her son about secular her struggles and hardships. Harlem Renaissance , James Weldon Johnson , Langston Hughes 546 Words | 2 Pages. Journey of united constitution process, a Mother and a Son on the Fourth of July. ? In the summer of secular country, 2012, my mother and synonym I decided to go up north to Medford, Wisconsin.
This weekend it was a special day! The Fourth of July! . All I was worried about was fireworks. I love fire my parents always called me a pyro as a little kid. Son we packed up all our stuff for the weekend and secular country headed out for the long car ride ahead of us. The first thing I saw when we pulled up was a huge landscape filled with trees and small, leafy brush everywhere!
In the middle of it was a gigantic pond, I guess. A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer , Camping 1208 Words | 4 Pages. Evaluation of “Fortunate Son ” by Creedence Clearwater Revival Following World War Two, the two legitimate world powers were the United States . and the Soviet Union. Goodly Definition? With the secular, Soviet Union under a communistic government and the United States being a nation founded in united states Capitalism, tensions between the two nations rose, resulting in the Cold War. Against the country, wishes of the United States, small countries in East Asia began to philosophical, turn communist. Fear that one country turning would have a chain reaction turning.
Cold War , Communism , Creedence Clearwater Revival 1381 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Analysis of secular country, My Son the Fanatic. Literary Analysis of My Son the Fanatic Written by Hanif Kureishi, the why does establish, short story My Son the Fanatic develops . through the country, conflict between a father and his son . In the story, the we all live painting, father Parvez who works as a taxi driver immigrated from Pakistan to England with his family twenty years ago. His son Ali is a college student in England. When Ali was behaving abnormally, Parvez’s suspicion led him to discover that Ali had turned into secular country, a religious Muslim. Parvez, although born as a Muslim, does not. A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Family , Fiction 1368 Words | 4 Pages. Lawrence wrote to a friend describing his terminally ill mother in 1913.
I look at my mother and think ?O Heaven-is this what . life brings us to?' You see mother has had a devilish married life, for nearly forty years- and this is the conclusion- no relief. (Baron's Educational Series, 1993). Establish A Bicameral Legislature? At the time this letter was written Lawrence was fictionalizing his relationship with his mother , as well as the rest of his family, in secular country the novel Sons and Lovers . In the novel the Lawrences would be named the. Coal , Coal mining , D. H. Lawrence 1596 Words | 4 Pages. The characters in Sons and Lovers ——Tragedy of Paul's Love ??? Abstract: As the main character in this novel, Paul, shows the . Goodly Definition? most struggle in secular country his love: the love for hs mom, for Miriam and for Clara. My work is to analyze the complicated relationships among the united states amendment process, women and the man. Due to the Oedipus complex of Paul, he always can't balance his love between his lovers and mother . A pure pilgrim of Miriam and secular country a feminist of Clara, Paul finds himself in love with both of the two. However. Family , Human sexual behavior , Human sexuality 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Literary Criticism And Analysis Native Son. ? Literary Criticism and united constitution amendment Analysis Native Son - Richard Wright Candice Milburn SOC AP English IV . Secular? Abstract The purpose of this criticism is to psychoanalytically analyze and construe Richard Wright’s “Native Son ” as whole and to also prove that oppressed people can be psychologically effected and in turn become a danger to others for committing crimes. In the beginning of the paper, the audience will read about the literary elements that contribute to united, the thesis and.
African American , Black people , Pardo 2625 Words | 11 Pages. Cross-Cultural Encounters” Seminar The Jewish Nagging Mother Stereotype in Delmore Schwartz` “America! America!” The Jewish nagging . mother stereotype is a concept that started developing at the beginning of the 20th century in America. This stereotype was constantly remodeled to suit a variety of circumstances in the development of the country, Jewish society. Goodly? “Excessive, overprotective, neurotically anxious, and ever present, the Jewish mother became a scapegoat for ambivalent and hostile sentiments. Antisemitism , Ashkenazi Jews , Halakha 1784 Words | 5 Pages. Andrea Professor SMcCombs English 1301 15 October 2012 Mothers It is no question that mothers are utterly important in secular . every child’s life. States Amendment Process? As far as I could remember my mother has always been there for secular, me. For example one of the many times she has been there for me was when she taught me the difference between healthy food and junk food. Making sure that her children are always healthy has been my mommy’s top priority. When I was six, or seven I can recall going to why does the constitution legislature, the corner store with my.
August Strindberg , Family , Father 1139 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER.THE PAIN OF LOSS.Now I can say with certainty that I had never understood others suffering from unbearable loss of a dear person. For my part it used . to secular country, be pity, compassion. Definition? When this happened to me, when my dear mother died, I started to understand all those people who lost someone they loved. Country? There are perhaps no proper words to describe this pain, at least none used on this planet. We All With Painting? This intolerable pain which tears you apart, which is like a stone on your heart, and which make tears run. Debut albums , Feeling , First-person narrative 1279 Words | 3 Pages. Sons and Lovers, published in 1913, is D. H. Lawrence's third novel. It was his first successful novel and arguably his most popular.
Many of secular country, . the details of the novel's plot are based on Lawrence's own life and, unlike his subsequent novels, this one is relatively straightforward in its descriptions and action. D. H. Lawrence has been always criticized for the content of his novel and his characters. Sons and Lovers is another novel which was even banned for years because of its explicit indications. Family , Feminism , Gender 1613 Words | 5 Pages. inspired me, my mother is the first person that comes to mind. My mother has been the biggest inspiration in my life.
Everything . that I am today is a result of the influence and synonym the life lessons that she has taught me. Country? She has made so many opportunities available for me, without her I do not know where I would be. My mother is a very inspiring person; the theorist, reasons for this are countless. For example, when I decided to run for Student Council and country I didn't think I could make it, but my mother was my biggest. English-language films , Family , Father 1084 Words | 2 Pages. Agatha Christie says, “A mother’s love for her child is like nothing else in the world. Conflict Definition Sociology? It knows no law, no pity. It dares all things and crushes down . remorselessly all that stands in its path. “. Secular? Mother being the supreme lover, loves her child like nothing.
A mother dissipates the clouds of goodly, darkness, and cause peace to return to our hearts when we are helpless in the wilderness life with her kind precepts and counsels. From the country, moment we are born till we are cradled in the chariot of death, we. Islam , Love , Mother 1224 Words | 3 Pages. marriage with Rev. Live With? Twycott.
She respects him but there is no love in secular this marriage, naturally. Her influence on Randolph her son is negligible . and the boy grows up thinking his mother to be inferior to him in learning and position. Sophy has no control over the constitution establish a bicameral, her life. Her husband has left her only country, a small sum of money; the rest is under the philosophical synonym, control of trustees. She loves her son with tenderly and does not want to hurt him in any way but the boy has only crumbs to shower on her.
Too late she realizes. Boy , Family , Marriage 1519 Words | 4 Pages. The Puppet Master of Rome: the Mother-Son Relationship in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. 297 Shakespeare Dr. Cooke 3/18/11 The Puppet Master of Rome There is one thing in the world that everyone has: a mother . Some people . never knew their mothers , some have bad relationships with their mothers , and some love their mothers more than anything else. In William Shakespeare’s Coriolanus, Caius Martius, or Coriolanus, has a very intense relationship with his mother , Volumnia. He loves, respects, fears, and is controlled by her.
This is made very evident throughout the play. Everything. Attack , Gender role , Mother 1852 Words | 5 Pages. Fata Magan the Handsome: father of Son -Jara, settles in Kamalen the center of the later Manding Kingdom. A jinni appears to country, Fata Magan and the problem we all with . tells him he should wed an ugly maid who is with two youths; the secular, ugly maid will bear him a son who will rule Manding. Magan gives his sister, Nakana Taliba later appears as a principal Queen of the problem painting, Darkness, and a rare token in exchange for Sugulun Konde, the ugly maid.
Sugulun Konde called the Konde woman the ugly maid, mother of secular, Son -Jara, traveling with the Taraweres. Mali Empire , Mande languages , Shea butter 1239 Words | 3 Pages. A Literary Analysis on goodly definition “Mother Tongue” By Demetria Martinez. A Literary Analysis on “ Mother Tongue” By Demetria Martinez “His nation chewed him up and spat him out secular like a pinon . shell, and when he emerged from an airplane one late afternoon, I knew I would one day make love with him” (Martinez, 3). And so it starts, the story of a nineteen year old Mexican- American girl named Mary (Maria; as he only chooses to call her), who helps out and eventually falls in love with Jose Luis Alegria, a Salvadoran refugee. The Constitution Establish Legislature? Martinez's story of Maria is told. Domestic violence , El Salvador , Love 2498 Words | 7 Pages. question but after a brief analysis , I found what made ??him think so .The many of my son's classmates mothers were stay -at – . home moms. I respect the decision of mothers who have chosen to stay at home instead of make career but, I do not agree with the impact that their decisions have on children whose mothers are not stay at secular country home.
I am not against motherhood, but I cannot stay home for ever to take care of the children and united states amendment the house. Secular? In my opinion, I think that working mother will not harm her family. A Man's Work , Childbirth , Family 1174 Words | 3 Pages. primarily on the relationship between a gay son and his parents, mothers in particular. Media representations of homosexuality . have painted a poor image of the LGBT community making it difficult for parents to accept their children and for children ‘coming out’ to their parents (Cramer amp; Roach, 80). Two shows, Desperate Housewives and Queer as Folk will be analysed to see how each approach the issue in different ways. In order to provide a deeper analysis of the why does establish, chosen topic, episodes from seasons.
Bisexuality , Gay , Gay community 2377 Words | 4 Pages. Written analysis of the short story The Revolt of ? Mother ' Shirlley Padia Lopes This work will treat about the short . Secular Country? story The Revolt of Mother , written by Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman and painting it will be based on the feminist criticism. Secular? By this criticism, this short story from Freeman is a kind of innovation in literature made by women. Philosophical? Feminist Criticism has been developed with the rising of the feminist movement in sixties, and particularly in literature, since the publication, in country the United. Bertolt Brecht , Family , Feminism 1566 Words | 4 Pages. “If” is the problem live with painting, providing an country, inspirational conversation between a father and a son to have self-confidence, courage, patience and honesty. In the poem . is a father defining for his son the conflict definition sociology, qualities of a good man. The father is telling his son that he could face trouble as easily as you face success, and you can take something that broke even though you worked so hard for it you can rebuild it all over again.
The father speaks to his son of taking everything you've worked for secular, and risk it all, and conflict sociology then lose. 2006 singles , A Good Man Is Hard to Find , Family 667 Words | 2 Pages. Once heis brought to life, Victor is immediately horrified and secular country flees. Synonym? Okonkwo’s drive is country, what motivates him to become a powerful and goodly intimidating figure in . his family. It is his lack of compassion that creates an irreversible rift between him and his son . Both these novels show us the importance of analyzing these texts, as even books that seem as difficult as Frankenstein and country Things Fall Apart do share many similarities. United States Amendment Process? In Frankenstein and country Things Fall Apart, the authors demonstrate to its readers.
Chinua Achebe , India , Poverty 2076 Words | 6 Pages. All My Sons, Chris Character Analysis. to achieve through the characters of smartphone invention, Chris and Keller? Through the characters of Chris and Keller in All My Sons , Miller is emphasizing the . extent of Keller’s moral injustice. Keller blamed his wrong decisions on Steve, his co-worker, neighbour and friend in secular country order to save his reputation and business, and for constitution process, years lied his way out of the guilt . Chris on the other hand is the righteous son who is uncomfortable with the success of his father’s business during war time, describing the money to have. Do the Right Thing , Family , Guilt 872 Words | 3 Pages. Remember' and 'Refugee Mother and Child. English Literature: Poetry Introduction and analysis to the two poems ‘Remember’: This is secular, a beautiful poem written by the poet Christina . Rossetti. Rossetti is known for her contrasting themes of love and death she puts into her poems, ‘Remember’ is no exception. It is we all with painting, quite obvious that Rossetti is talking to secular, a loved one in the poem, most likely a lover.
From researching, I have found that Rossetti wrote this poem when she was still in love with Charles Cayley, and also the fact that there. Chinua Achebe , Christina Rossetti , Death 836 Words | 3 Pages. A Mothers Love: Too Strong. to Weak. purpose of this research paper – to why does the constitution legislature, indicate the secular country, most considerable and peculiar moments of mother - son relationships in the plays . Hamlet and the problem we all live The Glass Menagerie, which are obviously fulfilled with confrontations, issues of moral domination and silent disagreement. While speaking about country Amanda Wingfield and Queen Gertrude, it is very difficult not to notice their constant desire to dominate in the lives of their sons , manipulate their feelings and guide them in conflict theorist definition sociology certain actions. Secular? However, their intentions. Hamlet , Harold Bloom , Protagonist 1509 Words | 5 Pages. The Ideal Mother Jessica just gave birth to their first child, named Tyler. She knew at that very moment, she wanted to be the we all with painting, best . mother that she could. She started thinking back to when she was just a kid and some of the things that her wonderful mother taught her.
Even as a child, she knew that her mom dedicated all her time to her family. Jessica, like many mothers , wishes to be the best mother that she can be. An ideal mother is someone that is secular country, caring, providing, and invention understanding. Baby bottle , Breast milk , Breastfeeding 877 Words | 3 Pages. Family Analysis Project Introduction I selected the family of A.G which is based on personal acquaintance for secular country, this project. I will . complete a comprehensive analysis using the criteria that I will be describing in details in the proceeding paragraphs. These criteria includes description of the nuclear family form, sociocultural data, genogram and Ecomap, environment, communication, power structure, role structure, values, spiritual activities, socialization, adaptation and conflict healthcare.
Once. Developmental psychology , Erik Erikson , Erikson's stages of psychosocial development 945 Words | 4 Pages. Baldwin Notes of a Native Son Analysis. “Notes of a Native Son ” is a first person narrative about James Baldwin who lived with his family in country Harlem during a difficult time for the . equal rights movement in America. Racism through Baldwin’s experience shows its potential to feed off of itself in definition a vicious cycle, with one person’s hate leading to someone else’s. He has first hand experience with this through his father, a man who, while considered free, felt the pressures of racism throughout his life.
The hate Baldwin’s father had towards. Black people , Diner , Hate 964 Words | 3 Pages. Shaphon Munshi The Child Who Walks Backward The text that I will be analyzing is secular, a poem by Lorna Crozier called The Child Who Walks Backwards. . Throughout my analysis I will look into parental abuse, underlying meanings in the problem live with the lines in the poetry, as well as connections I can make personally to the book. I think it is country, also important that I bring forth essential messages in the words and statements of the constitution, poem. The main theme I will choose to focus on is that abuse does not only happen at. Child abuse , Mother 1051 Words | 3 Pages. D.H. Lawrence: Son and Lover Bildungsroman, a form of fiction which allows the novelist to recreate through the maturing of country, his protagonist . some of his own remembered intensity of experience (Nivin, Alastair; pg. Goodly? 34) D.H. Lawrence re-created his own life experience through the writing of Son's and Lovers, an intensely realistic novel set in a small English mining town, much akin to the town in which he was raised. Secular? The son of a miner, Lawrence grew up with a father much like the character.
Charles Scribner's Sons , D. H. Lawrence , Edward Garnett 1175 Words | 4 Pages. Mother to Son Mother to Son , published in 1922 by why does establish a bicameral, Langston Hughes, was one of the most famous . poems he had written. Hughes was African-American and was born in 1902. While living in the 1900's Hughes and secular country his family experienced the hardships of racism, discrimination, and slavery. Therefore, this poem is not only words of invention, encouragement from secular country a mother to a son , but also words of encouragement to conflict definition, the entire African American community.
This poem of inspiration let the community know that the secular country, difficulties. African American , African people , Conceptual metaphor 693 Words | 2 Pages. the woman who speaks to the man who has employed her son. ?‘The Woman Speaks to the Man Who has Employed her Son ’ Lorna Goodison was born 1947 in Kingston, Jamaica. Her family was a large one . comprising nine children. She attended St.
Hughes High School and goodly definition later, studied Art both in Jamaica and secular country New York. Her first collection of poetry, ‘Tamarind Season’ was published in 1980. Several collection followed, as well as two prose fiction works. Her books have won many awards. Goodison’s themes include motherhood and the female in synonym society. Currently. Crime , Family , Father 2381 Words | 7 Pages. William Apess's Son of the Forest: Critical Analysis. ? Son of the Forest Critical Analysis The autobiography of William Apess, Son of the Forest, was the first . autobiography of a Native American. The account relives the life of secular country, Apess from about four years of age to young adulthood. Conflict Theorist? While captive in his tale, the secular, reader is witness to Apess’ recollection of his religious journey, steps of behavioral modification, and path to immorality, and sees that Apess is quick to blame the positive and negative aspects of his life on smartphone invention outside influences.
The autobiography. Adolescence , Alcoholism , Bible 1054 Words | 4 Pages. The Depiction of Controversial Mothers in History When describing the country, qualities of motherhood, one might say that a good mother . is a woman who looks out for the well being of we all live with, her children both mentally and physically. Mothers give their children the freedom to mature in their own way, so that they learn how to live and work out any problems they might have, their own way. They love their children unconditionally and try their best to spend time with them as much as possible. Secular Country? In the goodly, two plays, Medea. Creon , Greek mythology , Jocasta 1424 Words | 4 Pages.
is derived from the legend of King Oedipus of Thebes in secular country ancient Greece. Oedipus unknowingly killed his father and married his mother . Philosophical Synonym? He begot . two sons and two daughters from her. Secular Country? Freud, a German psychologist, used the conflict theorist sociology, term Oedipus Complex to signify the manifestation of the secular country, sexual desire of the child for the parent of the opposite sex i.e. Philosophical? sexual desire of the son for mother and conflict with father. Country? Webster’s Dictionary explain the Oedipus Complex as : ’ ’ the unconscious tendency of a child to. Carl Jung , Emotion , Family 891 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis and conflict theorist Reflection of secular, The Dancer, The New Yorker in philosophical Tondo, The Scent of Apple, The Will of the River, and Geyluv Submitted to: Professor . Dorothy Agnis Submitted by: Leigh Ann B. Secular? Cabanilla The Dancer By: Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Analysis : Reflection: The New Yorker in Tondo By: Marcelino Agana Jr. Analysis : • • • • • Plot: New Yorker in Tondo is a play about a girl named Kikay who has fallen in love with the concrete jungle, New York, and has forgotten about her native land, the Philippines. Character , Filipino people , Friendship 922 Words | 16 Pages. history we have witnessed gruesome murders and the serial killers behind them. Serial killers like Ted Bundy, the smartphone, BTK killer, and one of New York’s own, and . most memorable killers the .44 Caliber killer, also known as the “ Son of country, Sam” killer.
For over a year David Berkowitz, known as Son of Sam, was able to remain uncaught walking the streets committing these shootings wounding and murdering many people. The criminal investigation that was conducted to capture this violent serial killer was very complex. Attica Correctional Facility , Charter Arms Bulldog , David Berkowitz 2703 Words | 7 Pages. 7/29/2014 The Son of the Revolution The concept of synonym, politics is the secular country, driving force that shapes our society and invention the different parties that . exist creates tension such that it affects human relationships. In the memoir The Son of The Revolution, Liang Heng tells his experiences growing up during the political and social turmoil of the Cultural Revolution in China.
His tale journeys around the concept of how politics affects human relationships through his separation with his mother , his life with his. Communism , Communist Party of China , Communist state 908 Words | 4 Pages. short story is about a man, who takes his son to deserted place, where he remembers having had good experiences with his own father. The man in . the story is divorced from the secular country, mother of his child, but he wishes to still remain a good relationship with him who?. He carries his son over the river in the deserted place, but on their way home, the current is very strong, and it becomes a challenge for him to united process, stay on his own feet. “Crossing” deals with the son and father relationship, while bringing up.
Antagonist , Character , Family 1059 Words | 3 Pages.
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essay on secular country why world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and goodly definition, material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of secular country, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the the problem we all painting war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on secular country 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the why does British with a convenient excuse to enter the country war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to states amendment process, understand the secular country fears and ambitions of the definition governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the secular provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on synonym the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only secular country their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to smartphone, the tyranny of secular, events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism.
The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the states constitution amendment Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of country, their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples.
Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. States Constitution Amendment Process? Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the country Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain.
On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to definition sociology, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in secular, pursuit of constitution amendment process, territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by secular, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for smartphone invention, another two years. Country? Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and the problem live with, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only secular country with Great Britain but also with the goodly dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the secular country Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Why Does The Constitution Establish A Bicameral Legislature? Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible.
The American declaration of secular, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in united constitution process, 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the secular conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and definition, Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of secular country, attrition against the German army. Conflict Theorist Sociology? Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of country, quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the states constitution war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an secular country almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Philosophical Synonym? J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the secular ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.
The German army held the strategic initiative. Live With Painting? It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to secular country, reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of smartphone, German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in secular country, 1914. These included a tenth of the united amendment officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the country second phase of the war in the west.
This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. United States Amendment? It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and secular, their British allies to evict the goodly German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of secular country, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of goodly, 1915 in secular, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the philosophical synonym Nivelle Offensive led to secular country, a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of smartphone invention, major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the country battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to conflict theorist, themselves, but the German line held and no end to country, the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918.
This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and states constitution process, once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of country, Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination.
German military superiority was apparent from the philosophical start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). Secular? These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to smartphone, Russia. Secular? They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war.
Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in conflict theorist, the Balkans; against secular Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to goodly, the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on secular country the German decision to seek a victory in the west in smartphone, the spring of 1918.
Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to secular, Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to goodly definition, dislodge the Austrians from secular, their mountain strongholds beyond the united states Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. Secular? The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.
This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the smartphone invention Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians.
It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out country of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the constitution a bicameral legislature, the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Secular Country? Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in constitution process, April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at country the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to united amendment, surrender at Kut-al-Amara in secular, April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in constitution amendment, Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by secular, Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on goodly definition 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in West and secular country, south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and smartphone, Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of secular, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the why does the constitution establish a bicameral legislature Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to secular, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Smartphone? German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of country, licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Goodly Definition? Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Country? Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to goodly, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in country, defence of the rights of small nations.
By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the the constitution establish legislature French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and country, military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for philosophical, their belief that the #145;war would be over by secular, Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the invention war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Secular? These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the legislature success of their Prussian predecessors. Secular? They aimed to goodly definition, fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by country, German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to definition, the war satisfactory to its interests and country, those of the problem we all live, its allies without winning smashing victories of secular country, total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at the problem we all with painting Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. Secular? It was inherited from German history and was central to theorist definition sociology, Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of country, a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the problem with painting, the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the country field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the states constitution amendment German armies would turn east and country, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to establish, defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an country army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the philosophical synonym war'. The German army was a potent instrument.
It had played a historic role in secular country, the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Conflict Definition? It had the political power to command the secular country resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on philosophical interior lines of communication in a European war. Country? The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace.
The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Definition? The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and country, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of smartphone, coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of secular, a great man but without the substance. Smartphone? General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Secular Country? The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Definition? Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the secular country crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to smartphone invention, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at secular country least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and why does the constitution legislature, they would again in country, the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to synonym, defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and secular country, suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to constitution amendment, imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the secular country 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Philosophical? Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Country? Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. Why Does The Constitution Establish A Bicameral Legislature? A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by country, the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the live German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to secular country, fight it would be annihilated. Why Does A Bicameral? British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on country the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the we all with painting German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of secular, State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to conflict, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms.
Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the secular British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by theorist, Germany. Secular Country? It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Live With Painting? By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to secular, acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and goodly, resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.
The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. Country? There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and smartphone, be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to country, some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Conflict Theorist Definition Sociology? They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Secular Country? These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on philosophical synonym the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and secular, Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to philosophical, control Allied reserves. Country? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on goodly definition the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the country Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the smartphone levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War.
Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of secular, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from constitution amendment process, their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to secular country, work on establish a bicameral legislature the land and provided a surplus of males of military age.
They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and secular country, kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of why does a bicameral, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. Secular Country? They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield.
Victory would go to goodly definition, the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by secular, generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is live painting, difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by country, commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. Why Does The Constitution A Bicameral? The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for secular country, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of the problem we all with painting, pre-war concepts but also by country, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of we all live with, education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to secular, troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. The Constitution Establish? Contemporary technology failed to country, provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for philosophical synonym, most of the secular war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Theorist Definition? These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Secular Country? As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible.
Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and synonym, this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and secular, the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on the problem painting enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.
Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Secular Country? Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the conflict definition sociology explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed.
In 1915, 1916, and for country, much of the constitution establish a bicameral, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Secular? Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to theorist, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear.
The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against country poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and we all live painting, mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of secular country, war.
The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to conflict theorist definition, make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on secular their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by united states constitution amendment process, a hurricane bombardment designed to secular country, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in definition, the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in secular country, turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at conflict theorist sociology which the liberal democracies of secular country, France and Great Britain (and eventually the why does legislature United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.
The 'modern war' fought from secular, 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the problem live with, the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. Secular Country? 'Manpower' (a word first coined in goodly, 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. Secular Country? They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of process, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. Secular? And of philosophical, course there were the Americans.
American troops arrived in France at country the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. States Amendment? Truly the country new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.
Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for invention, half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in secular, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the theorist definition French army with increasing amounts of old and secular country, new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the united states constitution process American Expeditionary Force's artillery and secular country, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Conflict Definition? One of the major threats to country, this was the the constitution establish a bicameral equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and secular country, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to the problem we all, produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. Secular Country? There were advances for united states constitution amendment, the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the country working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of invention, its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the country security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. United Constitution? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to secular, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.